Change Leadership There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Nicolo Machiavelli - The Prince.
Agenda • Welcome • Explore the Challenge of Change • Reflect, Question, Debate, Learn, • Have Fun • Barry Wright home page
F.O.R.M. Groups of Two • Introduction • Task: Interview a “new” colleague and introduce them to the rest of the group • FORM • Family • Occupation • Recreation • Message (how are we similar)
Approach • Problem based learning • Sofna College has a problem • Task: What do we need to know about leading change to solve this challenge? What skills do you need to have to be a successful change agent? What pitfalls do you need to watch out for as you implement a change initiative? • Come up with a “list of learning” points
Why Should Anyone Care About Change? • Change is emerging as a key organizational topic—if not the key organizational success topic. • There is clearly a need for improvements how to undertake successful change. The track record of change efforts is not good. • The ability to enact change successfully sets leaders apart from managers / followers.
Change – How prevalent? • A recent study n=309 • HRM executives • 100% were going through – merger, acquisition, divestiture, global competition, restructuring • Life Skill for you
The Case for Change RIM 2008 “Can I keep my BB?” President O - $200.00 2012 “I want an iPhone!” The World – $7.36 2013 “Mmmmm – BB10” – $14.80 Wednesday “What else do you have?” – $ 10.94 This is why Organizations change Why we Change… That s/he not busy being born – is busy dying It’s alright, Ma (I’m only bleeding) Bob Dylan
Reflection: Change Wisdom “It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin
Quick Question? Who are you now? Session Goal – 3 C.A.L.L.
Exploring the need for change • What is organizational change? • Organizational change occurs when an organization restructures resources to create value and improve effectiveness.
Forces of change • Task: What forces are causing our organization to change? • Economic • Political/Legal • Technology • Social/Demographic • Other?
What distinguishes good change from bad? (or effective change from ineffective) Open question – One group Question:
Linda Ackerman Developmental change – improvement of what is presently happening (fine-tuning / incremental) Transitional change – old state – transitional state – new state (evolution) Transformational change – emergence of a new state, unknown until it takes shape (revolution / radical) Change Views / Theories
Incremental vs. Radical Change Continuous progression Paradigm-breaking burst Affect organizational part Transform entire organization Through normal structure and management processes Create new structure and management Technology improvements Breakthrough technology Product improvement New products, new markets
Dual-Core Approach to Organization Change Type of Innovation Desired Administrative Structure Technology Administrative Core Technical Core Direction of Change: Top-Down Bottom-Up Examples of Change: Strategy Production Downsizing techniques Structure Workflow Best Organizational Design for Change: Mechanistic Organic
Robbins • Planned • Intentional and goal oriented • First-order • Linear and continuous • Second-order • Multidimensional, multilevel, discontinuous, radical
Reflection Break • “We must become the change we want to see” (Mahatma Gandhi) • “When you are through changing, you are through” (Percy Barnevik, former CEO, ABB) • “You can’t stop the waves but you can learn to surf” (various attributions)
Sofna College • Jan Walker (solid background) • New Head of Sofna College • Starts work tomorrow • Has done her homework (and now you get to do yours) • She has a challenge
Task: • Read case individually • Two teams join together (perspective) • Case method approach • Identify salient problems • Identify constraints and key organizational values • Draw from theories, principles, models to guide your journey • Determine “best” solution(s) – with supporting reasons • Provide an action plan!
So Jan Walker … What are you going to do? (Action Plan) • Tomorrow (to start the journey) • First 90 days (actions) • 6 months (What will be your plan / vision) • What are your milestones? (for the first year) Group presentation: 5 minutes to sell your approach
Change Leadership Journey: “Insights to Build Upon”
Unfreezing Movement Refreezing Lewin’s Three-Step Change Model • Unfreezing: getting ready for change • GOAL - minimizing resistance • Moving: Making the change • GOAL - changing people (individuals and groups); • tasks; structure; technology • Refreezing: Stabilizing the change • GOAL - reinforcing outcomes, evaluating results, • making constructive modifications
Desired State Restraining Forces Status Quo Driving Forces Time Unfreezing the Status Quo
Lewin’s Force Field Steps • Describe Current Situation • Describe DesiredSituation • Identify where current situation will go if no action taken • List forces driving change to desired / restraining forces • Discuss all the forces – can they be changed? Which are the critical ones? • Determine if you can negate the restraining / enhance the driving • Recognize that changing one might impact the others (both positively and negatively)
Apply • Task: Start a force field analysis of your SOFNA change. • Let’s chat.
Unfreezing • Arouse dissatisfaction with the current state • tell them about deficiencies in organization • Activate and strengthen top management support • need to break down power centres • Use participation in decision making • get people involved • Build in rewards • tie rewards to change/use recognition, status symbols, praise to get people to go along
Moving • Establish goals • e.g. achieve retention targets at end of next year • Institute smaller, acceptable changes that reinforce and support change • e.g. procedures and rules, job descriptions, reporting relationships • Develop management structures for change • e.g. plans, strategies, mechanisms that ensure change occurs • Maintain open, two-way communication
Refreezing • Build success experiences • Set targets for change, and have everyone work toward targets • Reward desired behaviour • GOOD - reward behaviour that reinforces changes • BAD - reward old system (e.g., people relying on old systems while change is going on) • Develop structures to institutionalize the change • Organizational retreats, appropriate computer technology, performance appraisals that examine change efforts • Make change work
1) Establish a Sense of Urgency 2) Form a powerful guiding Coalition to Mobilize Commitment 3) Create a SharedVision 4) Communicate the Vision 5) Empower Other to Act 6) Plan and create Short-Term Wins 7) Consolidate Gains and Produce more Change 8) Institutionalize or Anchor new ways of doing things in company Culture Kotter’s 8 Steps for Leading Change
Task: Educate Each Other • Divide up the 8 Steps • Review the Article on your topic • Share with your colleagues the lessons learned (3-5 minutes)
Back to the Case • Start your journey • What needs to be focused upon? • Start your journey (Lewin; Kotter’s 8 steps)
Commercial courtesy of Kouzes & Posner Model the Way Inspire a Shared Vision Challenge the Process Enable Others to Act Encourage the Heart Managers do things rightLeaders do the right things
K & P Define Leadership • “The art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations.” • What do these words mean to you?
Leadership Lesson 1:Model the Way “I would never ask anyone else to do anything that I was unwilling to do first.” Gayle Hamilton – Director, Pacific Gas and Electric Company Leaders set the example, people first follow the person then they follow the plan. Credibility is key
The Credibility Factor: What do followers want? • Honest - consistency • Forward Looking - vision • Inspiring - cheerleader, excited, passion • Competent - record of achievement Credible - trustworthy
Credibility Insight First Law of Leadership “If we don’t believe in the messenger, we won’t believe the message
How do you know when you see a credible leader? • They practice what they preach • They walk the talk • They put their money where their mouth is • They follow through on their promises • Their actions are consistent with their words LLL - They do what they say they will do
Leadership Development • Opportunity for working as a team. • Practice the new “handclap” • Do it all at the same time • What was this about!?
Reflection Time • You are driving and as you turn the corner you drive into fog – what do you do?
Message: Inspire a Shared Vision • You first need to develop a clear vision of and then for your future
HINTS: Strategic Visioning • Henry Mintzberg debunks popular approaches to strategic planning as overly analytic • Mintzber hints: in order to be effective, he claims, strategy should involve intuitive glimpses of possibility • The anticipatory principle--the development of imaginative capacity to form possible images of future states--suggests that perhaps the most potent vehicle for transforming human systems is our ongoing projection of a future image (vision)
Clear Vision – on a clear day you can see forever • Visions are about possibilities, desired futures. • Discovery Points • Janusian Thinking (Past/Future) • Discover the Theme – what are you passionate about? • Imagine the Ideal – what is the best that could happen? • Elevator pitch – quick sell
Enlist OthersDevelop a shared sense of destiny • Listen deeply to others- what excites them? • Find the common ground • Discover and appeal to acommon purpose • A chance to be tested, to do something well, do something positive, a chance to change the way things are • Give life to vision bycommunicating expressively • Use powerful language – use the three peat, speak from the heart, image-analogy-feel,
Language of leadership Jay Conger • How things are framed makes a difference • Focus on intrinsically appealing goals and values • Accent the positive • Highlight the significance of the project • Who are the key antagonists • Highlight why it will succeed • Use analogies, stories, metaphors to make your point • Allow your own emotions to surface when you speak
Dr. King • Let’s read (out loud) the “I have a Dream” speech • Then deconstruct it
Step 3 - Challenge the Process Picasso Manet Pollock VVG
To Challenge the ProcessExperiment and Take Risks • Question Status Quo: Encourage possibility thinking • Set up little experiments • Make it safe for others to experiment • Accept that failure will happen – learn from it • Eliminate firehosing • Work with ideas that sound strange
Lesson 4:Enable Others to Act Small Wins