Leadership FOR ChangeKey Change Conceptsand Leadership Practices West Virginia 21st Century Leadership for 21st Century Schools November, 2008 Jerry Valentine Professor of School Leadership Director, Middle Level Leadership Center University of Missouri
What I heard Chuck say this morning about Leadership… • “Jumping the Gap requires leadership to leap the chasm.” • Distributive Leadership creates leadership density. • Surviving the Implementation Dip requires quality leadership • “Disruptive Innovation creates Positive Turbulence” (leadership) • “If we don’t replace what we are changing with something new, we just revert back to what we used to do.” (leadership) • “The art of progress (leadership) is to preserve order amid change, and to preserve change amid order.” • When true 2nd Order Change occurs, members of the organization attack the person (leader) leading it…it’s all they know how to do due to the discomfort they feel. • “Gentle Pressure Relentlessly Applied Over Time” (leadership) • Establishing Collective Efficacy changes student achievement (leadership)
Leadership Matters • Chuck’s presentation confirmed unequivocally that… LEADERSHIP MATTERS to school and student success! • So, let’s look at “Leadership FOR Change” for a few minutes… • Let’s begin with this concept: “If you are not improving, you are declining”
Why We Must Change: TheKnowledge-Implementation Gap Society Changes Constantly & Education Needs to Adapt Expert Knowledge of Best Educational Practices Our Knowledge of Best Educational Practices Our Implementation if We Maintain Knowledge of BEP Our Implementation w/ Moderate Knowledge of BEP Our Implementation with No New Knowledge No New Knowledge, Low Effort
1st & 2nd Order Change • First Order • Incremental • “Next most obvious step” • Relatively quick-fix solutions • Address simple problems where traditional solutions suffice • Single-loop learning where previous strategies will work • Second Order • Significant departure from the norm • Deep change affecting values, beliefs and assumptions • Slow, evolving process over time • Addresses complex problems requiring new, thoughtful, and often creative comprehensive solutions • Double-loop learning (organizational learning) where new strategies are needed and created to solve the problem • Becomes institutionalized in the culture of the organization
Mountain Stream Ice Flow: Freezes, Thaws, Reshapes, Refreezes with the Environmental Factors ofSun-Shade-Current Flow-Water Depth
Freeze-Unfreeze-Transition-Refreeze Explanation • Freeze is our current state—the way we are… • Unfreeze is the time we spend realizing and accepting that we need to change. • Transition is the actual implementation of the change • Refreezing is stabilizing the organization so the new change can be internalized and maintained until it needs to be changed • Learning organizations are in a continuous cycle of change from freeze to unfreeze to transition to refreezing just as the mountain stream transitions in the fall or spring
Same Concept, Different Visual Lewin’s Stages of Change: Current State Unfreeze Transition Freeze
On-going Emotions (Anxiety) During Times of Change Staff Anxiety High Low Comfort w/ on-going change Comfort with current conditions Optimism with Decision to Change Persistence Realization of needed change Engagement & Problem Solving Frustrations of implementing the change Realization of urgency for change TIME
Three Common Change Models • Authoritative (Top Down) • Strategic (Established Sequential Steps) • Transformational (People Capacity Building) Transformational leadership with flexible strategies understood by all is usually necessary to achieve lasting, second-order change
Increase Pressure, Decrease Resistance: Common Strategies in Authoritative Change • Increase the force/pressure to make the change • By increasing incentives, power, authority, negotiate (transactional) • Decrease the forces that create resistance to the change • By decreasing fear, anxiety and other impediments • If resistance was low, leaders did not worry about resistance and just increased force/pressure to make change; • If resistance was high, leaders increased force/pressure to make change while trying to decrease resistance to change • Basically…change was MANDATED!
Why Teachers Resist Change—Especially in Authoritative Model • Lack of trust… “It’s just another administrative ploy to get more workout of our already full day.” • Absence of belief change is needed… “It works just fine now, why change it?” • Believe change is not feasible… “We will never get ‘those kids’ to learn!” • Cost of change may shift resources away from “what I think is important.” • Loss of status or power… “Those new, young teachers are just taking over our school. I am tired of their new ideas!” • Threat to existing values and ideals… “I just don’t believe that is the right thing to do…and besides, it’s more work!” • Resentment of interference… “Leave me alone and let me do what I have always done!” Adapted from Yukl, 1998
Social Significance during Change Successful change strategies are… Socially based (staff working and learning together) And… Action oriented (Focused on accomplishing meaningful, authentic tasks that change the school) Fullan 2006
Traditional Faculty “Discussions” Principal Talks Teachers Listen (sometimes)
A Model of Faculty Collaborative Conversations for Change Whole Group Whole Group Small Groups
Other Barriers to Change • When talk and planning replace action • When memory of what we did, what worked and what did not, override new thought • When fear, anxiety, or stubbornness prevents action grounded in knowledge and reflection • When measurement impedes the use of good judgment • When internal competition and blame-pointing override cooperation and relationship building. Adapted from Pfeffer & Sutton 2000
Stages of Change under Transformational Leadership • Make a compelling case for change (intellectual stimulation; clarify existing values and beliefs through whole and small-group collaborative conversations) • Inspire a shared vision to guide the change (broad-based input for direction setting via collaborative conversations) • Lead with a sense of urgency (maintain momentum and provide energy and inspiration; maintain collaborative conversations) • Embed the change (internalize change into the culture; assess progress and effectiveness via collaborative conversations) • Adapted from Ian Hay www.weleadinlearning.org/transformationalleadership.htm
Collaborative Actions Collaborative Conversations The Significance of Collaborative Conversations Professional Relationships Trust Commitment Efficacy Professional Community Organizational Learning School Change
A purposeful community is one with the collective efficacy and capability to develop and use assets to accomplish goals that matter to all community members through agreed-upon processes. • Marzano, Waters, McNulty 2005
The Design Team (for Change) • Develop and maintain a teacher-leader team that leads the faculty and champions continuous improvement • If the Team’s Name reflected their tasks, they might be called: • The Design Team • The School Improvement Team • The Think-Tank Team • The Capacity Building Team • Members of the Team should be respected, quality, teacher leaders who care and want to make a difference across the whole school • The principal should participate and co-lead the Team’s work sessions • The Team’s responsibility it to be on the edge of knowledge and needed change and support the development of a culture for change across the school. • The principal (and usually outside support) help guide the work of the team and build capacity of the team to analyze, problem-solve, and design for change • Painter et al. Engaging Teachers in the School Improvement Process, 1999.
Staff Capacity Assume that lack of personal and group capacity is the problem…. and work on it continuously. • Fullan, 2005
The Big Picture of Meaningful School Change • Set Directions and Build Commitment through Meaningful Involvement • Develop Individuals, Teams, and Whole Faculty • Redesign the Organization, Internalize the Specific Changes into the Culture (Second-Order) • Internalize the “Change Process”…It has to become CONTINUOUS (a part of the culture)
Final Thought… Collaborative Conversations are the centerpiece for second-order, meaningful, continuous school change!
References and Recommended Readings • Berliner, David (2005). Our Impoverished View of Educational Reform. Teachers College Record, August> • Cotton, Kathleen (2003). Principals and Student Achievement: What the Research Says, ASCD. • Danielson, Charlotte (2003). Enhancing Student Achievement: A Framework for School Improvement, ASCD. • DuFour, Richard, et al. (2004). Whatever It Takes, National Education Service. • DuFour, Richard, et al., Eds. (2005). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities, National Education Service. • Fullan, Michael (2003). The Moral Imperative of School Leadership, Ontario Principals Council/Corwin Press. • Fullan, Michael, et al. (2006). Breakthrough, Corwin Press. • Fullan, Michael (2006). Turnaround Leadership, Jossey-Bass. • Hargreaves, A. and Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable Leadership. Jossey-Bass.
Recommended Readings • Hopkins, David, et al. (1994). School Improvement in an Era of Change, Teachers College Press. • Kanter, R. (2004). Confidence: How Winning and Losing Streaks Begin and End. Corwin Press. • Lambert, Linda (2003). Leadership Capacity for School Improvement, ASCD. • Leithwood, Kenneth et al. Eds. (2000). Organizational Learning in Schools, Swets & Zeitlinger Publishing. • Leithwood, Kenneth, et al. (2001). Making Schools Smarter: A System for Monitoring School and District Progress, Corwin Press. • Leithwood, Kenneth, et al., Eds. (2006). Teaching for Deep Understanding: What Every Educator Should Know, Corwin Press. • Leithwood, Kenneth. (2005) Teacher Working Conditions that Matter. Toronto: Elementary Teacher Federation of Ontario. • Marzano, Robert, et al. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, ASCD. • Marzano, Robert (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action, ASCD.
Recommended Readings • Marzano, Robert (2005). School Leadership that Works: From Research to Results ASCD/McREL. • Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. (2004) How Large are the Teacher Effects! Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, #26. • Painter, Bryan, et al. (1999). Engaging Teachers in the School Improvement Process, NASSP/Middle Level Leadership Center, University of Missouri. • Painter, Bryan, et al. (2000). The Use of Teams in the School Improvement Process, NASSP/Middle Level Leadership Center, University of Missouri. • Pheffer, J. & Sutton, R. (2000) The Knowing-Doing Gap, Harvard Business School Press. • Quinn, David, et al. (1999). Using Data for School Improvement, NASSP/Middle Level Leadership Center, University of Missouri. • Reeves, Douglas (2006). The Learning Leader: How to Focus School Improvement for Better Schools, ASCD. • Tschannen-Moran, Megan (2004). Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, Jossey-Bass.
Recommended Readings • Valentine, Jerry (2001) Frameworks for School Improvement: A Synthesis of Essential Concepts, International Confederation of Principals Recommended Web Reading or Queensland Elementary Journal 2002, or Middle Level Leadership Center, University of Missouri. • Valentine, Jerry, et al. (2004). Leadership for Highly Successful Middle Level Schools, NASSP. • Valentine, Jerry, et al. (2006). Project ASSIST: A Comprehensive, Systemic Change Initiative for Middle Level Schools, Paper presented at American Educational Research Association Annual Conference, San Francisco, April. (Available from author or at Middle Level Leadership Center web site). • Wheatley, Margaret (2005). Finding Our Way: Leadership for an Uncertain Time, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. • York-Barr, Jennifer, et al. (2006). Reflective Practice to Improve Schools: An Action guide for Educators, Corwin Press. Jerry Valentine, Middle Level Leadership Center, 211 Hill Hall, University of Missouri (573) 882-0944 ValentineJ@missouri.edu www.MLLC.org