Technician License Class Chapter 1 Welcome to Amateur Radio
What is Amateur Radio? • Amateur (or Ham) Radio is a personal radio service authorized by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
What is Amateur Radio? • According to the FCC, the purpose of Amateur Radio is: • To encourage the advancement of the art and science of radio. • To promote the development of an emergency communication capability to assist communities when needed. • To develop a pool of trained radio operators. • To promote international good will by connecting private citizens in countries around the globe.
What is Amateur Radio? • Through ham radio, you will become an ambassador for your community and your country.
What is Amateur Radio? • Who Can be a Ham? • US citizen • Alien • Not representative of foreign government • No age limit • Must pass written examination
What is Amateur Radio? • What Makes Amateur Radio Different? • There are many unlicensed radio services • Ham radio is licensed • Fewer restrictions • More frequencies (channels or bands to utilize) • More power (to improve range and quality) • More ways to communicate
What is Amateur Radio? • More Privileges More Responsibility • Because ham radios are much more capable and have the potential of interfering with other radio services. • Because ham radios have unlimited reach. • They easily reach around the globe and into space.
The FCC and Licensing • FCC authorization is required to ensure the operator is qualified to operate the ham radio safely, appropriately, and within the rules and regulations – that is why you are here.
The FCC and Licensing • The FCC has different rules and regulations for each type of radio service • The Amateur Radio Service is governed by Part 97 of the FCC Rules and Regulations
The FCC and Licensing • Prior to 1984, the FCC administered all amateur radio examinations • In 1984 the Volunteer Examiner system was inaugurated • Teams or 3 or more VE’s • 14 VEC’s • NCVEC
Amateur Radio Activities • Identification and Contacts • Every amateur in the world is issued a unique call sign • Call sign identifies country • In the USA, call signs begin with AA-AL, K, N, or W
Amateur Radio Activities • Identification and Contacts • In the USA, call sign may indicate what part of country
Amateur Radio Activities • Identification and Contacts • In the USA, call sign may indicate class of license
Amateur Radio Activities • Identification and Contacts • Any over-the-air conversation is called a “contact”. • Contacts can be made using • Voice • Morse code • Digital • Television • Satellites, meteor scatter, EME, etc.
Amateur Radio Activities • Identification and Contacts • Types of contacts include: • Rag-chewing • Public Service • Contests • DX • Awards
Getting Your Ham Radio License • Operator License Classes • Technician • Entry-level • Privileges focused on local communications • General • Privileges include more long-distance communications capabilities • Amateur Extra • All amateur privileges
Getting Your Ham Radio License • Testing Process • Test sessions coordinated by a Volunteer Examiner Coordinator (VEC) • FCC recognizes 14 VEC’s • Individual VEC’s may or may not charge a test fee • ARRL = $15 • W5YI = $14 • Laurel VEC = No test fee • Team of at least 3 Volunteer Examiners (VE’s) required to administer exam
Getting Your Ham Radio License • Examination Structure • Exam questions taken from a published question pool. • Technician question pool • 426 multiple-choice questions • 35 groups • 1 question from each group • Answer order will be scrambled
Technician License Class Chapter 2 Radio Signals & Fundamentals
Metric Units • Most of the time we will be using metric units. • Need to be familiar with several of the metric prefixes & how to convert between them.
T5B01 -- How many milliamperes is 1.5 amperes? • 15 milliamperes • 150 milliamperes • 1,500 milliamperes • 15,000 milliamperes
T5B02 -- What is another way to specify a radio signal frequency of 1,500,000 hertz? • 1500 kHz • 1500 MHz • 15 GHz • 150 kHz
T5B03 -- How many volts are equal to one kilovolt? • One one-thousandth of a volt • One hundred volts • One thousand volts • One million volts
T5B04 -- How many volts are equal to one microvolt? • One one-millionth of a volt • One million volts • One thousand kilovolts • One one-thousandth of a volt
T5B05 -- Which of the following is equivalent to 500 milliwatts? • 0.02 watts • 0.5 watts • 5 watts • 50 watts
T5B06 -- If an ammeter calibrated in amperes is used to measure a 3000-milliampere current, what reading would it show? • 0.003 amperes • 0.3 amperes • 3 amperes • 3,000,000 amperes
T5B07 -- If a frequency readout calibrated in megahertz shows a reading of 3.525 MHz, what would it show if it were calibrated in kilohertz? • 0.003525 kHz • 35.25 kHz • 3525 kHz • 3,525,000 kHz
T5B08 -- How many microfarads are 1,000,000 picofarads? • 0.001 microfarads • 1 microfarad • 1000 microfarads • 1,000,000,000 microfarads
T5B12 -- Which of the following frequencies is equal to 28,400 kHz? • 28.400 MHz • 2.800 MHz • 284.00 MHz • 28.400 kHz
T5B13 -- If a frequency readout shows a reading of 2425 MHz, what frequency is that in GHz? • 0.002425 GHZ • 24.25 GHz • 2.425 GHz • 2425 GHz
Radio Signals & Waves • Radio waves (electromagnetic radiation) are AC waves. • Created by an electrical signal that rapidly changes direction. • a.k.a. – Radio signal. • Travel at the speed of light. • Radio waves are used to carry the information you want to convey to someone else.
Radio Signals & Waves • Turning electrical signal into a radio wave is called radiating or radiation. • Not the same as radioactive radiation. • Radio equipment is designed to manipulate radio signals.
Radio Signals & Waves • Before we study radio waves, we need to learn some wave vocabulary. • Amplitude • Frequency • Period • Wavelength • Harmonics
Radio Signals & Waves • Frequency • Radio signals are AC signals. • Rapidly reverse polarity & back again. • Rate at which polarity changes is called “frequency”. • Measured in Hertz (Hz). • 1 Hz = 1 complete cycle per second • The range of frequencies that produces radio signals is referred to as “RF”.
Radio Signals & Waves • Phase • Signals at the same frequency that cross zero at exactly the same time are “in phase”.
Radio Signals & Waves • Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum • The RF spectrum is the range of wave frequencies which will leave an antenna and travel through space. • The RF spectrum is divided into segments of frequencies that basically have unique behavior.
Radio Signals & Waves • Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum
Radio Signals & Waves • Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum
Radio Signals & Waves • Wavelength • The distance a radio wave travels during one cycle.
Radio Signals & Waves • Wavelength 300 fMHz • λm Frequency (MHz) = 300 / Wavelength (meters) Wavelength (meters) = 300 / Frequency (MHz)
Radio Signals & Waves • The RF spectrum is divided into “bands”. • Bands are named by their approximate wavelength. • 40m Band = 7.000 MHz to 7.300 MHz • 20m Band = 14.000 MHz to 14.350 MHz • 15m Band = 21.000 MHz to 21.450 MHz • 10m Band = 28.000 MHz to 29.700 MHz • 2m Band = 144 MHz to 148 MHz
T3B01 -- What is the name for the distance a radio wave travels during one complete cycle? • Wave speed • Waveform • Wavelength • Wave spread
T3B04 -- How fast does a radio wave travel through free space? • At the speed of light • At the speed of sound • Its speed is inversely proportional to its wavelength • Its speed increases as the frequency increases
T3B05 -- How does the wavelength of a radio wave relate to its frequency? • The wavelength gets longer as the frequency increases • The wavelength gets shorter as the frequency increases • There is no relationship between wavelength and frequency • The wavelength depends on the bandwidth of the signal
T3B06 -- What is the formula for converting frequency to approximate wavelength in meters? • Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz multiplied by 300 • Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz divided by 300 • Wavelength in meters equals frequency in megahertz divided by 300 • Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz
T3B07 -- What property of radio waves is often used to identify the different frequency bands? • The approximate wavelength • The magnetic intensity of waves • The time it takes for waves to travel one mile • The voltage standing wave ratio of waves
T3B08 -- What are the frequency limits of the VHF spectrum? • 30 to 300 kHz • 30 to 300 MHz • 300 to 3000 kHz • 300 to 3000 MHz
T3B09 -- What are the frequency limits of the UHF spectrum? • 30 to 300 kHz • 30 to 300 MHz • 300 to 3000 kHz • 300 to 3000 MHz