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Scrum

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Scrum

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  1. Scrum Santhosh Srinivasan

  2. Outline • What is Scrum • Why Scrum • Scrum Practices • Why Scrum works • Pros and Cons • Case Study • Summary

  3. What is Scrum • Scrum is an agile, lightweight process that can be used to manage and control software and product development using iterative, incremental practices [3]

  4. History • Origin in Rugby • Getting an out of play ball into play • Used to describe hyper-productive development in 1987 by Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi

  5. Why Scrum • Software Development Lifecycle • Requirements Gathering and Analysis • Design • Implementation • Testing • Delivery • Output of one stage serves as input for the succeeding stage

  6. Why Scrum 2 • Assumption • Each stage produces a predictable and defined output • Application of the process results in repeatable outputs • Results • Loss of control • Surprises • Incomplete or wrong products

  7. Why Scrum 3 • Major approaches to controlling processes • Defined process control • Empirical process control • Defined process control • Well defined set of inputs • Repeatable outputs upon completion

  8. Why Scrum 4 • Empirical process control • Expects the unexpected • Provides and exercises control through frequent inspection and adaptation • Imperfectly defined processes that generate unpredictable and unrepeatable results

  9. Scrum Practices • Scrum Master • Interface between the management and the scrum team • Typically an experienced engineer • Responsible for removing impediments that stall the progress of Scrum Team Members • Should be able to make quick decisions based on incomplete data

  10. Scrum Practices 2 • Product Backlog • List of features under consideration • Business features and technology features • Sorted by priority • Product Owner • Sole owner of the product backlog • Changes to the product backlog have to be approved by the product owner • Technical lead or Project Manager

  11. Scrum Practices 3 • Scrum Team • Cross Functional • Designers, Testers, Technical Writers? • Recommended Team Size 5 - 10

  12. Scrum Practice 4 • Sprint • Lasts for about 30 days • Implement the top priorities in the Project Backlog called as the Sprint Backlog • Sprint estimates updated as tasks are completed or new tasks crop up • Potentially shippable product increment

  13. Scrum Practices 5 • Daily Scrum Meeting • Lasts about 15 minutes • What was achieved since the last meeting? • What are the impediments to your tasks? • What will you achieve before the next meeting?

  14. Scrum Practices 6 • Sprint Review • Lasts for about 4 hours • Provides feedback to the management • Provides feedback to the next Sprint

  15. Scrum Practices - Summary 24 hours Daily Scrum Meeting Sprint Backlog tasks expanded by team 30 days Sprint Backlog Potentially Shippable Product Increment Product Backlog As prioritized by Product Owner Source: Adapted from a presentation on Scrum [2] that has Adapted from Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle.

  16. Why Scrum Works • Most of the defined model assumptions are removed • Constant feedback • Focused on “What can be done” instead of “Why it can’t be done”

  17. Pros • Great emphasis on team work • Team learns and contributes throughout the process • Team becomes autonomous and strives for excellence • Rotation of leadership depending on the phase gives a distributed nature of project execution

  18. Pros 2 • The management team has a pulse on the progress of the team, stepping in whenever required • Organizations sometimes learn about obstacles created by established practices • Creates an open environment and encourages feedback • Evaluation of effort and subsequent rewards are based on the team performance

  19. Pros 3 • Reduced need for meetings, authorization and reporting • Iterative model leading to a delivery every 30 days • Can act as a wrapper for practices already in place

  20. Cons • The basic premise that the team is committed to the project. If the team is not committed then process collapses • The management's comfort level in delegation of tasks • Emotional impact of failure on team members if the project fails

  21. Cons 2 • The size of the team is restricted due to the involvement of all team members • Suited for development of new products and not for enhancement of an existing product • Reliance on experience

  22. Case Study • Year • 1996 • Company • Individual Inc • Team • Personal News Page (PNP) • 8 engineers

  23. Case Study 2 • Problem • No features delivered in 8 months • Bad reputation within the company • Causes • Features under implementation shelved for “Hot Ideas”

  24. Case Study 3 • Approach to the problem • Head of product management made product owner • Product Backlog created • Product Owner controlled the Product Backlog • Sprint Backlog followed • First Sprint with Daily Scrum meetings

  25. Case Study 4 • Difficulties • People still approached engineers for adding new features including Product Owner • Daily Scrum meetings lasted lot longer than 15 minutes initially • Existing policy created interference • Non-team members attend Daily Scrum meetings

  26. Case Study 5 • Results • A release within the month • First release in 9 months • Demo for management • More attention to engineers’ problems • Team spirit and confidence up • Customers happy to see functioning system and the potential

  27. Summary • Scrum is an agile process • Scrum questions the basic assumptions of defined process control model • Scrum practices • Case Study • Pros and Cons

  28. References • Agile Software Development with Scrum • Ken Schwaber, Mike Beedle • Prentice Hall 2001 • http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/pres/RedistributableIntroToScrum.ppt • http://www.controlchaos.com/

  29. Questions