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African American Culture

African American Culture

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African American Culture

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  1. African American Culture Chapter 10, Section 5

  2. Harlem Renaissance • Spanned 1919-mid 1930s • Great Migration  large African American populations in the north • Cities full of night clubs and music • Harlem neighborhood in New York City became epicenter • Artistic development, racial pride, and political organization

  3. Louis Armstrong • Jazz stemming from Dixieland Blues • Brought to Chicago’s Southside, 1922 • Added improvisations • 5 years later shaped jazz more • Added imaginative solos

  4. Duke Ellington • Composer, pianist, and bandleader • Did not like the label of “jazz” • “American Music” • Got start at Cotton Club • Wrote almost 6000 pieces

  5. Bessie Smith • Blues singer • Soulful music; evolved from spirituals • Sang of unfulfilled loved, poverty, and oppression • Later performed with the likes of: • Louis Armstrong, Fletcher Henderson, and Benny Goodman

  6. Music Styles Jazz Blues

  7. Claude McKay • First important writer • Expressed horrors of American racism in poetry • Defined HR writing characteristics • Proud defiance • Bitter contempt

  8. Langston Hughes • Poet, novelist, playwright turned activist • Innovative leader of “jazz poetry” • Leading voice of African American experience in America

  9. “A Dream Deferred”Langston Hughes What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry uplike a raisin in the sun?Or fester like a sore –And the nun?Does it stink like rotten meat?Or crust and sugar over –like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sagslike a heavy load. Or does it explode?

  10. “We return, we return from fighting. We return fighting. Make way for democracy! We saved it in France, and by the Great Jehovah, we will save it in the United States of America, or know the reason why.” -W.E.B. Du Bois

  11. Voting Changes • Larger population = greater voting power • Voting mostly Republican • Party of Abraham Lincoln • 1928 – Elected Oscar DePriest • First African American in Congress from a northern state

  12. NAACP • Lobbied public officials; worked through the court system • Focus on lynching • 1922 – Anti-lynching laws passed in House • Senate defeated it • Kept working on issue; # of lynchings dropped • 1930 – Judge John J Parker SC nomination defeated • NAACP joined with labor unions • Parker racist and anti-labor • Demonstrated growing power of African American voters and lobby groups

  13. Marcus Garvey • “Negro Nationalism” • Glorified black culture and traditions • Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) • Promoting black pride and unity • Promoted separation and independence from whites

  14. Legacy • African American middle class and intellectuals distanced themselves from Garvey • FBI considered UNIA potential catalyst for black uprisings • Garvey arrested for mail fraud • Coolidge commutes sentence and deported him • Failed to keep separation movement alive • Filled millions of African Americans with pride and hope