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SCSC 455 Computer Security 2011 Spring

SCSC 455 Computer Security 2011 Spring

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SCSC 455 Computer Security 2011 Spring

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  1. SCSC 455 Computer Security2011 Spring Chapter 5 Malware

  2. Index • Malware Overview • Virus • Propagation of Viruses • Worm • Trojan Horses and other malware • Methods against malware attacks

  3. Malicious Software (Malware) • Malicious software often masquerades as good software or attaches itself to good software • Some malicious programs need host programs • Trojan horses, viruses, logic bombs • Others can exist and propagate independently • Worms • Goals of malware • Destroy data • Corrupt data • Shutdown networks or systems

  4. Malware classification • Malicious software includes • Virus • Worm • Trojan programs • Spyware • Adware

  5. Index • Malware Overview • Virus • Worm • Trojan Horses and other malware • Methods against malware attacks

  6. Viruses propagation • Virus propagates by infecting other programs • Automatically creates copies of itself, but to propagate, a human has to run an infected program • In contrast, self-propagating malicious programs are usually called worms • Many propagation methods … • Insert a copy into every executable (.COM, .EXE) • Insert a copy into boot sectors of disks • E.g., Stoned virus infected PCs booted from infected floppies, stayed in memory and infected every floppy inserted into PC • Infect TSR (terminate-and-stay-resident) routines • By infecting a common OS routine, a virus can always stay in memory and infect all disks, executables, etc. • Etc.

  7. Virus Classification • Stealth viruses • Mutation • Aliasing • Macro viruses • What is Macro? • Polymorphic viruses • Viruses that mutate and/or encrypt parts of their code with a randomly generated key • changing the encryption routine, the sequence of instructions, or other such changes in the behavior of the virus Detail of each …

  8. Virus Stealth Techniques [Shin, Jung, Balakrishnan] • Mutation: virus has multiple binary variants • Defeats naïve signature-based detection • Used by the most successful (i.e., widespread) viruses e.g., Tanked: 62 variants, SdDrop: 14 variants • Aliasing: virus places its copies under different names into the infected host’s sharing folder e.g., “ICQ Lite .exe”, “ICQ Pro 2003b.exe”, “MSN Messenger 5.2.exe”

  9. Macro Viruses • Macro viruses are virus encoded as a macro • Macro virus is lists of commands that can be used in destructive ways • When infected document is opened, virus copies itself into global macro file and makes itself auto-executing • Most macro viruses are very simple. Even nonprogrammers can create macro viruses • Instructions posted on Web sites (You will read more about macro viruses in the reading article 3.)

  10. Evolution of Polymorphic Viruses (1) • Anti-virus scannersdetect viruses by looking for signatures • signatures are snippets of known virus code • Encrypted viruses: virus consists of a constant decryptor, followed by the encrypted virus body • Relatively easy to detect because decryptor is constant • E.g., Cascade (DOS), Mad (Win95), Zombie (Win95) • Oligomorphic viruses: different versions of virus have different encryptions of the same body • Small number of decryptors (96 for Memorial viruses); • To detect, must understand how they are generated

  11. Evolution of Polymorphic Viruses (2) • Polymorphic viruses: constantly create new random encryptions of the same virus body • Virus must contain a polymorphic engine for creating new keys and new encryptions of its body • Rather than use an explicit decryptor in each mutation, it decrypts its body by brute-force key search • E.g., Marburg (Win95), HPS (Win95), Coke (Win32)

  12. How Hard Is It to Write a Virus? • 2268 matches for “virus creation tool” in CA’s Spyware Information Center • Including dozens of poly- and metamorphic engines • OverWritting Virus Construction Toolkit • "The perfect choice for beginners“ • Biological Warfare Virus Creation Kit • Note: all viruses created this way will be detected by Norton Anti-Virus • Vbs Worm Generator (for Visual Basic worms) • Used to create the Anna Kournikova worm

  13. Index • Malware Overview • Virus • Propagation of Viruses • Worm • Trojan Horses and other malware • Methods against malware attacks

  14. Propagation of Viruses [Moshchuk et al.] • Websites with popular content • Games: 60% of websites contain executable content, one-third contain at least one malicious executable • Celebrities, adult content, everything except news • Most popular sites with malicious content (Oct 2005)

  15. Viruses in P2P Networks [Shin, Jung, Balakrishnan] • Millions of users willingly download files e.g., KaZaA: 2.5 million users in May 2006 • Easy to insert an infected file into the network • Pretend to be an executable of a popular application e.g., “Adobe Photoshop 10 full.exe”, “WinZip 8.1.exe”, … • Infected MP3 files are rare • When executed, the malicious file opens a backdoor for the remote attacker • Steal user’s confidential information; spread spam • 70% of infected hosts are already on DNS spam blacklists

  16. Prevalence of Viruses in KaZaA [Shin, Jung, Balakrishnan] • 2006 study of 500,000 KaZaA files • Look for 364 patterns associated with 71 viruses • Up to 22% of all KaZaA files infected • 52 different viruses and Trojans • Another study found that 44% of all executable files on KaZaA contain malicious code • When searching for “ICQ” or “Trillian”, chances of hitting an infected file are over 70%

  17. Dangerous KaZaA Queries [Shin, Jung, Balakrishnan]

  18. Index • Malware Overview • Virus • Propagation of Viruses • Worm • Trojan Horses and other malware • Methods against malware attacks

  19. Worms • Worm are self-propagating malicious programs • Replicates and propagates without a host • Worms can infect a large number of computers in a short time • Infamous examples: the Morris worm, Code Red I & Code Red II, Slammer, Nimda

  20. VIRUS Propagates by infecting other programs Usually inserted into host code (not a standalone program) WORM Propagates automatically by copying itself to target systems Is a standalone program Viruses vs. Worms

  21. Summer of 2001 [from “How to 0wn the Internet in Your Spare Time”] Three major worm outbreaks

  22. Code Red I • July 13, 2001: is the first worm of the modern era • Exploited buffer overflow in Microsoft’s Internet Information Server (IIS) How does Code Red I work? • 1st through 20th of each month: spread • Find new targets by random scan of IP address space • Spawn 99 threads to generate addresses and look for IIS • Creator forgot to seed the random number generator, and every copy scanned the same set of addresses  • 21st through the end of each month: attack • Deface websites !

  23. Code Red II • August 4, 2001: explore the same IIS vulnerability, completely different code, • Worked only on Windows 2000, crashed NT • Died by design on October 1, 2001 • Scanning algorithm preferred nearby addresses • Chose addresses from same class A with probability ½, same class B with probability 3/8, and randomly from the entire Internet with probability 1/8 • Payload: installed root backdoor in IIS servers for unrestricted remote access Q: what is the class A, class B …?

  24. Slammer Worm • January 24/25, 2003: UDP worm exploiting buffer overflow in Microsoft’s SQL Server • Buffer overflow was already known and patched by Microsoft • but not everybody installed the patch • Entire code fits into a single 404-byte UDP packet • Worm binary followed by overflow pointer back to itself • Classic buffer overflow combined with random scanning: • once control is passed to worm code, it randomly generates IP addresses and attempts to send a copy of itself to port 1434 • MS-SQL listens at port 1434 (We’ll see how buffer overflow works in the next chapter “network attacks”)

  25. Slammer Propagation • Scan rate of 55,000,000 addresses per second • Scan rate = rate at which worm generates IP addresses of potential targets • Up to 30,000 single-packet worm copies per second • Initial infection was doubling in 8.5 seconds (!!) • Doubling time of Code Red was 37 minutes • Worm-generated packets saturated carrying capacity of the Internet in 10 minutes • 75,000 SQL servers compromised • And that’s in spite of broken pseudo-random number generator used for IP address generation

  26. 05:29:00 UTC, January 25, 2003 [from Moore et al. “The Spread of the Sapphire/Slammer Worm”]

  27. 30 Minutes Later [from Moore et al. “The Spread of the Slammer Worm”]

  28. Secret of Slammer’s Speed • Old-style worms (Code Red) spawn a new thread which tries to establish a TCP connection and, if successful, send a copy of itself over TCP • Limited by latency of the network • Slammer was a connectionless UDP worm • No connection establishment, simply send 404-byte UDP packet to randomly generated IP addresses • Limited only by bandwidth of the network

  29. Slammer Impact • $1.25 Billion of damage • Temporarily knocked out many elements of critical infrastructure • Bank of America ATM network • Entire cell phone network in South Korea • Five root DNS servers • Continental Airlines’ ticket processing software • The worm did not even have malicious payload • simply bandwidth exhaustion on the network and resource exhaustion on infected machines

  30. Index • Malware Overview • Virus • Propagation of Viruses • Worm • Trojan Horses and other malware • Methods against malware attacks

  31. Trojan Horses • Trojan horse is malicious code hidden in an apparently useful host program • When the host program is executed, Trojan does something harmful or unwanted • User must be tricked into executing the host program • E.g., In 1995, a program distributed as PKZ300B.EXE looked like a new version of PKZIP… When executed, it formatted your hard drive. • Trojans do NOT replicate • This is the main difference from worms and viruses

  32. Trojan Insidious attack • Trojan insidious attack against networks • Disguise themselves as useful programs, hide malicious contents (Backdoors, Rootkits) in program • Allow attackers remote access • Trojan programs also use known ports • HTTP (TCP 80) or DNS (UDP 53)

  33. Common Trojan Programs and Ports Used (details are not required)

  34. Rootkits (revisit) • Rootkit is a set of Trojan program binaries • Main characteristic: stealthiness (hides infection from the host’s owner) • Create a hidden directory • /dev/.lib, /usr/src/.poop and similar • Often use invisible characters in directory name • Install hacked binaries for system programs such as netstat, ps, ls, du, login • Typical infection path: • Use stolen password or dictionary attack to log in • Use buffer overflow in rdist, sendmail, loadmodule, rpc.ypupdated, lpr, or passwd to gain root access • Download rootkit by FTP, unpack, compile and install

  35. Detecting Rootkit Presence • Sad way to find out • Run out of physical disk space because of sniffer logs • Logs are invisible because du and ls have been hacked! • Manual confirmation • Reinstall clean ps and see what processes are running • Automatic detection • Host-based intrusion detection can find rootkit files • assuming an rootkit did not disable your intrusion detection system!

  36. Spyware • Sends information from the infected computer to the attacker • Confidential financial data • Passwords • PINs • Any other stored data • Can even registered each keystroke entered

  37. Adware • Similar to spyware • Can be installed without the user being aware • Display unwanted pop-up ads. • Main goal • Determine user’s online purchasing habits • Tailored advertisement • Problem of Adwares • Slows down computers

  38. Index • Malware Overview • Virus • Propagation of Viruses • Worm • Trojan Horses and other malware • Methods against malware attacks

  39. Protecting Against Malware Attacks • Protecting against malware is a difficult task • New viruses, worms, Trojan programs appear daily • Most of antivirus software use signature to check known viruses.

  40. Educating Your Users • Structural training • Includes all employees and management • E-mail monthly security updates • Is a simple but effective training method • Recommend that users update virus signature database • Activate automatic updates

  41. Defense via Software and Hardware • Anti-virus software • SpyBot and Ad-Aware • Help protect against spyware and adware • Firewalls • Hardware (enterprise solution) • Software (personal solution) • Intrusion Detection System (IDS) • Monitors your network 24/7