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Chapter 7 Early China. Early China. Click the speaker button to play the audio. China’s First Civilizations. China’s Geography. Huang He, or the Yellow River, flows for more than 2,900 miles across China . .
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Chapter 7 Early China
Early China Click the speaker button to play the audio.
China’s First Civilizations China’s Geography • Huang He, or the Yellow River, flows for more than 2,900 miles across China. • Chang Jiang, or the Yangtze River, is about 3,400 miles long and flows across central China. (pages 225–226)
China’s First Civilizations The Zhou Dynasty • The Zhou dynasty ruled longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history. (pages 229–231)
China’s First Civilizations What is a dynasty? A dynasty is a line of rulers who belong to the same family.
Life in Ancient China Life in Ancient China • A social class includes people who share a similar position in society. • Chinese society had three main social classes: aristocrats, farmers, and merchants. • Aristocrats grew rich from farmers who grew crops on the land the aristocrats owned. (pages 232–235)
Life in Ancient China Life in Ancient China (cont.) • Most Chinese people were farmers. • Farmers paid aristocrats with part of their crops. • Merchants were in the lowest class. • They grew rich but were still looked down on by aristocrats and farmers. • Chinese families were large, and children were expected to work on farms. (pages 232–235)
Life in Ancient China Life in Ancient China (cont.) • Filial piety means children had to respect parents and elders. • Men were considered more important than women in Chinese society. • Men went to school, ran the government, and fought wars. • Women raised children and managed their households. (pages 232–235)
Life in Ancient China Life in Ancient China (cont.) (pages 232–235) A Chinese village.
Life in Ancient China Chinese Thinkers • Confucius was a great thinker and teacher, who believed that people needed a sense of duty to be good. • Confucianism taught that all men with a talent for government should take part in government. (pages 235–239)
The Qin and Han Dynasties Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (cont.) • The Great Wall of China was built to protect the Chinese from the Mongols, a nomadic people living north of China. (pages 241–242)
The Qin and Han Dynasties The Han Dynasty • Civil service examinations began when Han Wudi started testing potential government employees. (pages 244–246)
The Qin and Han Dynasties The Han Dynasty (cont.) • Students prepared for many years to take the exams. • That one test determined the rest of their lives forever!!! • Farmers had to divide their land among more and more sons, which left them with very little land. • Farmers sold their land to aristocrats and became tenant farmers to survive. (pages 244–246)
The Qin and Han Dynasties The Han Dynasty (cont.) • The Chinese invented many new products during the Han dynasty, such as the waterwheel, the rudder, drill bits, steel, and paper. • Chinese doctors began practicing acupuncture, the practice of easing pain by sticking needles into patients’ skin. (pages 244–246)
The Qin and Han Dynasties The Silk Road • Silk was the most valuable trade product. • The Silk Road was an overland trade route extended from western China to southwest Asia. (pages 246–247)
The Qin and Han Dynasties Major Changes in China • Buddhism spread from India to China. • Civil war began, and nomads invaded the country before the government collapsed. • Buddhism helped people cope with the chaotic times. (page 248)
The Qin and Han Dynasties What were civil service examinations and why were they created? Civil service examinations were long, difficult tests used to qualify people for jobs in the government bureaucracy. They were used to find the best and most talented people.
Early China Review Main Ideas Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties What was the purpose of the Silk Road? to carry Chinese goods to other areas—as far as Greece and Rome
The Qin and Han Dynasties The Great Wall of China stretches more than 4,000 miles from east to west across China. Today, sections of the Great Wall are deteriorating from natural erosion.
Confucius 551- 479 B.C.
Qin Shihuangdi c. 259-210 B.C.