Chapter 28 The Islamic Empires
The Ottoman Empire (1289-1923) • Osman leads bands of seminomadic Turks to become ghazi: Muslim religious warriors • Captures Anatolia with light cavalry and volunteer infantry • Later, heavy cavalry • In Balkans, forced Christian families to surrender young boys to military service: devshirme • Often grew up to be exceptionally loyal Janissaries • The Ottomans were tolerant of other cultures
Tamerlame (Timur the Lame) • Shot with bow and arrow as he tries to steal a sheep when he was a kid, left him with a permanent limp... LAME • CLAIMED descent from Ghenghis Khan • Briefly halted Ottoman expansion and conquered Baghdad in 1402. • After crushing Baghdad, turned his attention to China, leaving the Ottomans to expand their empire into Hungary, the Balkans and to take the city of Constantinople.
Mehmed II (“the Conqueror,” r. 1451-1481) • Capture of Constantinople, 1453 • Renamed Istanbul • Transformation from warrior sultan to emperor of “two lands” (Europe, Asia) and “two seas” (Black Sea, Mediterranean) • Planned to capture Pope, unsuccessful
Suleyman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566) • Expanded into Asia, Europe • Besieged Vienna, 1529 • Develops naval power
The Ottoman Bureaucracy SULTAN Divans Social / MilitaryDivans Heads of IndividualReligious Millets Muslims Jews Local Administrators& Military Christians Landowners / Tax Collectors
The Safavid Empire • Ismail young military leader, r. 1501-1524 • Orphaned, parents killed by enemies • Becomes Shah, proclaims official religion of realm Twelver Shiism • Twelve infallible imams after Muhammad • 12th imam in hiding, ready to take power • Wore distinctive red hat, called quzilbash (“red heads”) • Empire called Safavid, after Safi al-Din (1252-1334), Sufi thinker
Battle of Chaldiran (1514) • Ottoman Selim the Grim attacks Safavids • Heavy use of Ottoman gunpowder technology give them the upper hand • Ismail escapes, two centuries of ongoing conflict • Shah Abbas the Great (r. 1588-1629) revitalizes weakened Safavid empire • Reforms administration, military • Expands trade • Military expansion
The Mughal Empire • In the year 1000, well-trained Turkish armies began to invade India, leaving the region in ruins and vulnerable to other invasions. • Timur the Lame, destroyed the city in 1398 and it would be years until the region fully recovered. • Delhi eventually became the capital for the Turkish invaders and the center of a Turkish empire in India, called the Delhi Sultanate. (Sultan=one w/ power) • Chagatai Turk, invades northern India for plunder, 1523 • The Mughal Empire first began under Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur the Tiger – 11 years old!), who was driven south to build an army after his kingdom north of India was taken away. • Eventually, Babur conquered a large portion of India that served as the foundation for the Mughal Empire (Persian for Mongol), created by his grandson, Akbar. • Gunpowder technology gives Babur advantage • Expands through most of Indian subcontinent
Akbar (r. 1556-1605) • Grandson of Babur (Takes thrown at age 13) • Began to rebuild his grandfather Babur’s empire that was lost by his father, Humayun • Wins fear and respect after throwing Adham Khan, leader of the army, out the window twice • Second time just to make sure he was dead • Created centralized government • Akbar utilized heavy artillery, allowing him to break into walled cities that were once unable to be conquered. Soon, his empire extended into most of the Deccan plain in Northern India. • Destroyed Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar • Utilized heavy artillery, allowing him to break into walled cities that were once unable to be conquered. • Empire extended into most of the Deccan plain in Northern India.
Akbar’s Liberal Rule • As a Muslim, Akbar retained the Islamic tradition of religious tolerance promoted “Divine Faith” • Syncretic form of Islam and Hinduism • Both Hindus and Muslims alike rejected Akbar’s ideas, finding them to be in conflict with their traditional beliefs. • Abolished special taxes on non Muslims • Allowed anyone of merit to hold high offices in his government.
Aurangzeb (r. 1659-1707) • Expands Mughal empire into southern India • Hostile to Hinduism • Demolished Hindu temples, replaced with mosques • Tax on Hindus to encourage conversion
The Decline of the Mughal Empire • The Taj Mahal is the best example of Mughal architecture – a blending of Hindu, Persian, Turkish and Islamic styles. • It was built by Akbar’s great grandson, Shah Jahan, as a mausoleum for his favorite wife, Mumataz Mahal. • While the Taj Mahal is loved for its beauty and romantic story, the Indian people paid high taxes and suffered while their rulers lived extravagantly.
The Decline of the Mughal Empire • The Mughal Empire declined during the reign of Aurangzeb (Shah Jahan’s son), who revoked all freedoms given to non-Muslims under Akbar in an attempt to purge India of non-Islamic influences. • At the end of Aurangezb’s reign, European traders began to take an interest in gaining power in India. In 1661, Aurangezb gave the English traders in India the city of Bombay, the start of English dominance in India.
Common Elements of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires • Empires based on military conquest (“gunpowder empires”) • Prestige of dynasty dependent on piety and military prowess of the ruler • Close relations with Sufism, ghazi tradition • Steppe Turkish traditions • Issuance of unilateral decrees • Intra-family conflicts over power • 1595 Sultan massacres 19 brothers (some infants), 15 expectant women (strangulation with silk)
Women and Politics • Women officially banned from political activity • But tradition of revering mothers, 1st wives from Chinggis Khan • Süleyman the Magnificent defers to concubine Hürrem Sultana • Originally Roxelana, Ukrainian woman • Convinces husband to murder eldest son in favor of her own child
Agriculture and Trade • American crops effect less dramatic change in Muslim empires • Coffee, tobacco important • Initial opposition from conservative circles, fearing lax morality of coffee houses • Population growth also reflects territorial additions and losses • Trade with English East India Company, French East India Company, and Dutch VOC
Religious Diversity • Ottoman Empire: Christians, Jews • Safavid Empire: Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians • Mughal Empire: Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, Christians, Sikhs • Mughal Akbar most tolerant • Received Jesuits politely, but resented Christian exclusivity • Enthusiastic about syncretic Sikhism, self-serving “Divine Faith”
Status of Religious Minorities • Non-Muslim protected people: dhimmi • Payment of special tax: jizya • Freedom of worship, property, legal affairs • Ottoman communities: millet system of self-administration • Mughal rule: Muslims supreme, but work in tandem with Hindus • Under Akbar, jizya abolished • Reaction under Aurangzeb
Capital Cities • Istanbul cultural capital of Ottoman empire, massive monumental architecture • Rededication of Hagia Sofia church as Aya Sofiya mosque • Ishafan major Persian city • Akbar builds magnificent Fatehpur Sikri • Chooses site without sufficient water supply, abandoned • Taj Mahal example of Mughal architecture
Deterioration of Imperial Leadership • Ottoman princes become lazy through luxury • Selim the Sot (r. 1566-1574) • Ibrahim the Crazy (r.1640-1648) • Attempts to isolate them compounds the problem • Religious tensions between conservatives and liberals intensify • Role of women • Wahhabi movement in Arabia denounces Ottomans as unfit to rule • Force destruction of observatory, printing press • Safavid Shiites persecute Sunnis, non-Muslims and even Sufis
Economic and Military Decline • Foreign trade controlled by Europeans • Military, administrative network expensive to maintain • Janissaries mutiny when paid with debased coinage, 1589, other revolts follow • Unproductive wars • European military technology advances faster than Ottomans can purchase it
Cultural Conservatism • Europeans actively studying Islamic cultures for purposes of trade, missionary activities • Islamic empires less interested in outside world • Swiftly fell behind in technological development • E.g. Jews from Spain establish 1st printing press in Anatolia in late 15th century • But printing of books in Turkish and Arabic forbidden until 1729 • Handwritten books preferred, but weak levels of dissemination