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Sweet Dough

Sweet Dough

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Sweet Dough

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  1. Sweet Dough

  2. Lesson Objectives • Understand the preparation and uses of different types of sweet doughs. • Understand basic ingredients in sweet doughs. • Definewhat retarded dough is and its advantages. 2

  3. Sweet Dough Definition Among the many types of dough made in a bakery, sweet dough is the most common. It is made from a formula high in sugar, eggs, and other rich ingredients. It is a yeast raised dough and should be as sweet as its name implies. 3

  4. Basic Ingredients • Flour • Milk • Sugar • Yeast • Shortening • Salt • Eggs • Spices 4

  5. Basic Ingredients (cont’d) • Flour is generally a hard, wheat flour. This flour requires longer fermentation time, yet it has the tolerance for extended work on the bench. This tolerance is very important in sweet doughs, especially Danish, which require multiple rolls and folds. Being a softer flour, General Purpose can be used and uses less fermentation. 5

  6. Basic Ingredients (cont’d) • Sugar is usually white granulated sugar. This yields the finest product. The sugar content has an effect on the character of the dough and final product. The percentage of sugar in a sweet dough varies from 9% to up to 20% in some recipes. The 9% sugar dough will produce a softer bun and have a long workability on the bench, where the 20% sugar dough will rise quickly and have a shorter bench time but will be more rich and sweet. 6

  7. Basic Ingredients (cont’d) • Shortening is best used if its fat content is 16% to 24% fat. This will yield a roll that is tender and short in texture, yet it won’t leave a greasy feeling in the mouth. Too much fat content will cause a low volume. 7

  8. Basic Ingredients (cont’d) • Eggs improve the handling of the dough. Too many eggs, however, will increase the cost of the item. Ideally use whole eggs in the amounts ranging from 16% to 22%, depending on the type of product desired. Eggs contribute little color to the dough unless the percentage is very high. 8

  9. Basic Ingredients (cont’d) • Milk is acceptable for use in any sweet dough. Due to cost and handling, non-fat dry milk is often used. Non-fat dry milk in an amount of 3% to 6% yields a good product. 9

  10. Basic Ingredients (cont’d) • Yeast content is increased in sweet dough because of the high sugar content inhibits the work of the yeast. Sugar slows down yeast action by increasing the viscosity of the dough, making it more difficult for the yeast-produced gases to raise. Too much yeast will shorten fermentation time and also work bench available time. Yeast in dough amounts to 3% to 6% depending on richness of the formula. 3% may be used in the 9% sugar dough, and 6% yeast used in the 20% sugar dough. 10

  11. Basic Ingredients (cont’d) • Salt brings out the flavor of other ingredients. Take caution, as it will retard yeast growth and make a flat product. 11

  12. Basic Ingredients (cont’d) • Spices add variety and flavor to the sweet dough, such as mace in Danish dough. As with any product, you must remember that an excessive amount of extracts or spices can produce an undesirable flavor. 12

  13. Two Types of Sweet Dough There are two basic types of sweet dough. Their products may be similar in size, weight, and shape, but will differ greatly in texture. 13

  14. Two Types of Sweet Dough (cont’d) • Regular Sweet Dough has a fine even texture and grain. • Danish Pastry has a flaky texture and high fat content in its final product. Both doughs are handled the same during preparation. Only the way they are prepared after mixing makes them so different. 14

  15. Pastries Examples Croissant Filled Pastry Puff Pastries Cinnamon Rolls 15

  16. Mixing and Fermentation • Follow preparation guidelines on AFRS recipe card. • For both types of sweet doughs, the dough should be smooth and elastic (due to high egg content, the dough will appear more slack than bread dough for example). • Dough temperature should be 78º F. - 82º F. • Temperature of the dough is affected by ingredient temperature. 16

  17. Mixing and Fermentation (cont’d) • Allow one full rise or fermentation period. • Take dough to the bench and makeup the pastries. • Proof - all products require a full period to proof (at least double in size). Do not over-proof, as the product will become flat and lose flavor quality. Under-proofed dough will not yield a flaky product, causing the product to be greasy and heavy. • Bake according to variances in size and shape 17

  18. Retarding Danish Pastry • A key factor for a great Danish product is the temperature of the dough when the roll-in butter is added during folding process. The dough temperature should be 65° F. If too warm the butter will melt; if too cool the butter will clump up and not spread evenly. • It is also important to keep dough cool during the rest periods. 18

  19. Retarding Danish Pastry (cont’d) • When the dough is rolled and chilled properly during the makeup process, the retarded prepared (rolled, formed, and ready to bake) dough can be kept at 40º F. or below for up to 72 hours. • Bring Danish pastry back to room temperature before baking. 19

  20. Retarding Basic Sweet Dough • 66% of the baker’s time is saved (just pull pre-made pastries out of refrigeration, allow to proof, then bake). • Refrigeration does not affect product quality. • Refrigeration temperature should be 32º F. - 40º F. • Hold prepared (rolled, formed, and ready to bake) dough at 40º F. or below for up to 72 hours. • Bring sweet dough back to room temperature before baking. 20

  21. Baking Sweet Doughs • Ensure all doughs are proofed properly prior to baking. Sweet rolls should be washed with an appropriate egg wash before proofing. • Sweet doughs should not be baked slowly. • Many sweet doughs have nuts, streusel, fruit filling or assorted toppings prior to baking. • Follow baking procedures outlined on the AFRS recipe card. • Most sweet dough products are glazed or iced while still warm. 21

  22. Styles of Sweet Doughs Makeup of a sweet dough rests totally on the imagination of the baker. There are common styles that are very appealing to the customer: • Cinnamon Rolls • Kolaches • Bow Ties • Twists • Figure 8’s • Pinwheels • Filled Danish Follow guidelines in AFRS recipe index for a variety of folding techniques. 22

  23. Any Questions? What? Why? How? 23

  24. Test for Lesson • What percent of fat should the shortening have? • What basic ingredient brings out flavor? • Name two types of sweet dough? • When retarding Danish Pastry how long can you keep rolled and formed dough? • What improves the handling of the dough? • Why is Non-Fat Dry Milk often used? 24

  25. Test for Lesson • What happens with over proofing? • What temperature should Danish Pastry dough be when adding butter? • When do you wash sweet dough with an egg wash? Before proofing or baking? • What is the ideal dough temperature? • What is the result of under-proofing? 25

  26. Test for Lesson Turn in Answer Sheet now. 26

  27. Any Questions? What? Why? How? 27