Chapter 8 The Rise of Rome
The Rise of Rome Chapter Introduction Section 1 Rome’s Beginning Section 2 The Roman Republic Section 3 The Fall of the Republic Section 4 The Early Empire Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
The Rise of Rome Chapter Objectives • Explain how Rome became a republic. • Describe how Rome gained control of the Mediterranean region. • Explain how the failure of the republic led to the creation of a Roman Empire. • Relate how military and political reforms made Rome rich and prosperous.
The Rise of Rome Click the speaker button to play the audio.
Rome’s Beginnings Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the beginnings of Rome, the founding of the republic, and early conquests.
Rome’s Beginnings Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Geography played an important role in the rise of Roman civilization. • The Romans created a republic and conquered Italy. By treating people fairly, they built Rome from a small city into a great power.
Rome’s Beginnings Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Sicily (SIH·suh·lee) • Apennines (A·puh·NYNZ) • Latium (LAY·shee·uhm) • Tiber River (TY·buhr) • Etruria (ih·TRUR·ee·uh)
Rome’s Beginnings Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People • Romulus (RAHM·yuh·luhs) • Remus (REE·muhs) • Aeneas (ih·NEE·uhs) • Latins (LA·tuhnz) • Etruscans (ih·TRUHS·kuhnz) • Tarquins (TAHR·kwihnz)
Rome’s Beginnings Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • republic (rih·PUH·blihk) • legion (LEE·juhn) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 262 of your textbook to show how the Etruscans affected the development of Rome.
Rome’s Beginnings The Origins of Rome • Italy is a boot-shaped country in the Mediterranean. • The toe of the boot points toward the island of Sicily. • The Alps are mountains at Italy’s northern border, and the Apennines is a mountain range that extends through Italy from north to south. • Italy’s terrain was easier to farm than the terrain of Greece, so Italy could support more people. (pages 263–265)
Rome’s Beginnings The Origins of Rome (cont.) • The Latins built the city of Rome on the plain of Latium. • Rome was located in central Italy on the Tiber River. • Two stories tell about Rome’s beginning: the legend of Remus and Romulus and the tale of Aeneas and his Trojan followers. (pages 263–265)
Rome’s Beginnings The Origins of Rome (cont.) • The Greeks and the Etruscans influenced the Roman way of life. • The Etruscans were skilled metal workers who helped shape Roman civilization. • The Etruscan army was the model for the Roman army. (pages 263–265)
Rome’s Beginnings How did the Greeks influence the Romans? The Greeks taught the Romans how to grow grapes and olives. They also taught the Romans their alphabet. Roman architecture, sculpture, and literature was also modeled after the Greeks.
Rome’s Beginnings The Birth of a Republic • The Tarquins were leaders of the Etruscan-ruled Rome. • After 100 years under the Tarquins, the Romans rebelled against Etruscan rulers. • The Romans established a republic. • In a republic, the leader is not a king or queen but someone voted into office by citizens. (pages 265–267)
Rome’s Beginnings The Birth of a Republic (cont.) • Rome had a large, powerful army made up of excellent, disciplined soldiers. • Roads connected all of Rome’s military settlements. (pages 265–267)
Rome’s Beginnings The Birth of a Republic (cont.) • The Roman Confederation gave full citizenship to some people, who could vote and serve in government. • Romans gave others the status of allies, which meant they could rule their own local affairs. (pages 265–267)
Rome’s Beginnings What was the benefit of organizing soldiers into legions? Smaller bands of troops were easier to maneuver than one large army.
Rome’s Beginnings Where did the Greeks live in Italy, and how did they influence Roman civilization? Greeks colonized southern Italy and Sicily. They passed on farming methods, sculpture, literature, and an alphabet.
Rome’s Beginnings Describe the two legends that tell of the founding of Rome. Then describe how and when Rome was actually founded. The legend of Romulus and Remus and the Aeneas story. Rome was probably founded by Latins in c. 700s B.C.
Rome’s Beginnings Summarize Describe the Roman conquest of Italy. Rome defeated remaining Latins and then Etruscans and Greeks.
Rome’s Beginnings Compare and Contrast How did geography affect the development of civilization in Greece and Italy? Italy is less rugged than Greece, so people are not separated from each other. Italy’s better farmland supports more people.
Rome’s Beginnings Expository Writing Write a short essay discussing the reasons Rome was so successful in its conquest of Italy. Answers will vary.
Rome’s Beginnings Identify the rights held by Roman citizens.
The Roman Republic Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the Roman Republic’s political development and the defeat of Carthage.
The Roman Republic Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Rome’s republic was shaped by a struggle between wealthy landowners and regular citizens as it gradually expanded the right to vote. • Rome slowly destroyed the Carthaginian Empire and took control of the entire Mediterranean region.
The Roman Republic Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Carthage (KAHR·thihj) • Cannae (KA·nee) • Zama (ZAY·muh) Meeting People • Cincinnatus (SIHN·suh·NA·tuhs) • Hannibal (HA·nuh·buhl) • Scipio (SIH·pee·OH)
The Roman Republic Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • patrician (puh·TRIH·shuhn) • plebeian (plih·BEE·uhn) • consul (KAHN·suhl) • veto (VEE·toh) • praetor (PREE·tuhr) • dictator (DIHK·TAY·tuhr)
The Roman Republic Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Categorizing Information Create a chart like the one on page 268 of your textbook. List the government officials and legislative bodies of the Roman Republic.
The Roman Republic Rome’s Government • Patricians and plebeians were the two classes of people in Rome. • Top government officials were called consuls. • Another important group of officials were the praetors. • The Senate was the most important lawmaking body. (pages 269–273)
The Roman Republic Rome’s Government (cont.) • Another important legislative body was the Assembly of Centuries. • Plebeians challenged the class system by going on strike. • The Romans then allowed the plebeians to set up their own legislative group called the Council of the Plebes. • Today, a dictator is an oppressive ruler. (pages 269–273)
The Roman Republic Rome’s Government (cont.) • In the Roman Republic, a dictator was a person who served the people and ruled temporarily during emergencies. • Cincinnatus, the best-known early Roman dictator, led an army of men to defeat a powerful enemy. • The Twelve Tables were Rome’s first code of laws. • They were the basis of all future Roman laws. (pages 269–273)
The Roman Republic Rome’s Government (cont.) • The Law of Nations was created to address issues of conquered peoples. • The rule of law is the idea that laws should apply to everyone equally. (pages 269–273)
The Roman Republic How are modern dictators different from the Roman dictators? Roman dictators were appointed by the Senate in times of great danger. When the danger was over, the dictators gave up their power. Modern dictators often seize power, frequently using military force. They do not often give up their power voluntarily, instead ruling until they are removed from office by force.
The Roman Republic Rome Expands • Carthage, a state on the coast of North Africa, was a powerful enemy of Rome. • The First Punic War began as a dispute between Rome and Carthage over the island of Sicily. • The war continued for 20 years before Rome won. • The Second Punic War began after Carthage expanded into Spain. (pages 274–276)
The Roman Republic Rome Expands (cont.) • Rome helped the people of Spain rebel. • Hannibal was a great Carthaginian general who fought in the Second Punic War. • At the Battle of Cannae, Hannibal’s forces overpowered the Romans. • The Roman general Scipio led his forces to defeat the Carthaginians at the Battle of Zama. (pages 274–276)
The Roman Republic Rome Expands (cont.) • Rome destroyed Carthage in the Third Punic War. • Rome also took all of Greece and Macedonia and parts of Africa during the Punic Wars. (pages 274–276)
The Roman Republic Why did Rome create a navy? Carthage was a great sea power. To beat the Carthaginians, the Romans had to build a great naval fleet.
The Roman Republic Who were the top government officials in the Roman Republic, and what were their duties? Consuls were the top government officials, praetors, tribunes. Consuls headed armies and ran the state. Praetors served as judges, and tribunes represented the plebeians.
The Roman Republic What does mare nostrum mean, and why did the Romans use the term? It means “our sea.” The Romans controlled the Mediterranean Sea.
The Roman Republic Geography Skills Where was Carthage located, and why did it compete with Rome? Carthage was located on the coast of North Africa and was a trading rival of Rome.
The Roman Republic Summarize What other conquests did Rome carry out during the period of the Punic Wars? Rome conquered Macedonia, Greece, and Asia Minor.
The Roman Republic Evaluate Why do you think the legacy of Roman law is considered so important? Roman law led to the principles that law protects citizens’ rights, that a person is innocent until proven guilty, and that a judge must look at evidence carefully before making a decision.
The Roman Republic Persuasive Writing Write a speech demanding equal rights for plebeians in the early republic. Answers will vary but should be based on the text.
The Roman Republic Summarize the expansion of the Roman Empire.
The Fall of the Republic Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the events that led to the end of the Roman Republic.
The Fall of the Republic Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • The use of enslaved labor hurt farmers, increased poverty and corruption, and brought the army into politics. • Military hero Julius Caesar seized power and made reforms. • The Roman Republic, weakened by civil wars, became an empire under Augustus.
The Fall of the Republic Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Rubicon (ROO·bih·KAHN) • Actium (AK·shee·uhm) Meeting People • Julius Caesar (jool·yuhs SEE·zuhr) • Octavian (ahk·TAY·vee·uhn) • Antony (AN·tuh·nee) • Cicero (SIH·suh·ROH) • Augustus (aw·GUHS·tuhs)