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Indus Valley Harappan Civilization PowerPoint Presentation
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Indus Valley Harappan Civilization

Indus Valley Harappan Civilization

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Indus Valley Harappan Civilization

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  1. Indus Valley Harappan Civilization Kalibangan Dholavira

  2. Asia Indus Valley Region India, Pakistan, Bangladesh Harappan Civilization

  3. Indus subcontinent, separated from the rest of Asia by mountains River valley subject to tectonism – earthquakes, uplift

  4. Indus River = numerous side channels and 4 main tributaries= Harappan cities arespread out

  5. Himalayan Mountains • divides China from Indian sub-continent • Acted as impassable barrier

  6. NATURE OF HARAPPAN CULTURE HUGE AREA DEVELOPS QUICKLY AND LASTS SHORT TIME PERIOD MORE UNIFORM URBAN AREAS LESS ELABORATE WEALTH CAN’T DECIPHER TEXT

  7. First settlements • The site of Mehrgarh in Pakistan • farmers w/ wheat and barley by 6300 B.C. • Wheat from Mesopotamia, barley may be local

  8. Mehrgarh – agricultural community on trade route from Mesopotamia to India • mud brick architecture – fairly simple • exotic and trade goods= copper, shell, ivory, beads with water

  9. The Early Indus, or Pre-Urban 3200 to 2600 B.C. over 3000 years see: Agricultural intensification population growth improved irrigation systems expansion of settlements Settlements similar to earlier EXTEND TRADE NETWORKS uniform pottery

  10. The Emergence of Complex Societies in the Indus Valley • True urbanism followed rapid social and cultural changes from 2600 to 2500 B.C. • adoption of maritime trade • the appearance of a small number of large settlements = Mature Harappan or Urbanphase in the Indus Valley

  11. Mature Harappan Sites • An acropolis, a high platform (administrative function) • surrounded by workshops, markets, and living quarters in a lower level • public sewer and drainage systems • > social stratification and material culture • use of luxury goods (less than Egypt and Meso) • Writing and uniform system of weights and measures • common systems of urban planning and artifact types

  12. Mature Harappa2500 – 2050 B.C. Covered an area of 500,000 sq. miles not as compact as Egypt or Sumer

  13. Fired Mud Brick architecture

  14. Indus Valley Urbanism: Mohenjo-daro Harappa

  15. Mohenjo-daro Harappa

  16. Mohenjo-daro

  17. Mohenjo-daro

  18. Mohenjo-daro • Largest Harappan city(2x the size of Harappa) • 40,000-80,000 people • Rebuilt nine times after massive floods • Mud-brick “citadel” rises above the northern portion of the site (not elaborate)

  19. CITADEL

  20. Great Pyramid Citadel

  21. The Great Bath • (ceremonial ritual bathing) had a dedicated well

  22. Sewer System and Drains most houses had water-tight baths that drained out into the streets

  23. Gridded streets with house for craft workers not great distinctions in class or wealth Independent specialists

  24. Bead manufacture, also pottery and shell goods

  25. Harappan folk traded widely, esp. to Mesopotamia in the west

  26. Craft refuse, but not arts NOT much ARTWORK Bearded Man – King??

  27. Harappan Political Controlmany mysteries • no great tombs of elites • no monuments to rulers • lacked militarism, no army • economy focused on trade and manufacture • but not evidence that some were much richer

  28. Standardization of measures system of weights • Cubes out of stone • 13.7 - 0.837 grams trade and maybe to collect taxes

  29. Seals • soft rock (steatite) stamp seals approved transactions and to label shipments • made in dedicated workshops • animals & religious scenes May be kin group symbols 1” or 2” squares

  30. Harappan Writing - Indus language • Over 4,000 seals with script • 400 pictographic symbols • Earliest examples come from ~3500 B.C. • Indus = the oldest written language in the world • Undeciphered text

  31. Why did they collapse/decline • River system – possible coastal uplift with floods or dried up • evidence of catastrophe • but cause and consequences are unclear

  32. 1900 B.C. = the Late Harappan, or Post-Urban, phase abandonment of many of the larger cities long-distance trade declined reduced range of specialized crafts material culture is less uniform very decentralized to 600 B.C.

  33. The Legacy of the Harappan Civilizationon later societies of India between Indus Valley images and Hindu gods the areas of technology, craft production, and agricultural practice similarities:

  34. @ 2600 B.C. have the first true cities, social stratification, and craft specialization • factors leading to the development of Harappan urbanism are unclear • water and ritual use of water are imp. • shift from overland to maritime trade may be a factor • decipherment of the Indus script and more archaeology are needed