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Super Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories (a dangerous trip to Terra Incognita)

Super Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories (a dangerous trip to Terra Incognita). J.J. Gómez-Cadenas IFIC/U. Valencia Original results presented in this talk based on work done in collaboration with P. Hernández, J. Burguet & D. Casper. Outline: A dangerous trip. BB+NF. SB. LBL.

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Super Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories (a dangerous trip to Terra Incognita)

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  1. Super Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories (a dangerous trip to Terra Incognita) J.J. Gómez-Cadenas IFIC/U. Valencia Original results presented in this talk based on work done in collaboration with P. Hernández, J. Burguet & D. Casper

  2. Outline: A dangerous trip BB+NF SB LBL Evidence of oscillations

  3. Evidence of neutrino oscillations You are here

  4. Inoe/Chen Kajita

  5. Long Base Line experiments (2005-2015) Measure atmospheric oscillation parameters to ~10% Some sensitivity to q13

  6. 1 mm t n Pb Emulsion layers

  7. Super Beam experiments (1st generation) (2010-2020) Observe subleading oscillation Measure q13 Measure q23 ,Dm23 to O(1%)

  8. The first Super-Beam: T2K

  9. Observation of subleading oscillation Measurement of q23 ,Dm23

  10. Measurement of q13. Correlations The appearance probability P(q13,d) obtained for neutrinos at fixed (E,L) with input parameters (q13,d) has no unique solution. Indeed the equation: has a continuous number of solutions Correlation error Cervera et al.

  11. Measurement of q13: Intrinsic degeneracy For neutrinos and antineutrinos of the same energy and baseline the system of equations has two intersections. The true one (q13,d) and a second, energy dependent point (clone) that introduces and ambiguity in the determination of the parameters Degeneracy error

  12. Discrete degeneracies Two other sources of degeneracy. Ignorance of the sign of Dm232 Ignorance of the octant of q23 These two discrete values assume the value 1

  13. Eightfold degeneracy Experimental measurement. Number of observed chaged leptons Nb Integrate P over Fn, s, and detector efficiencies. Since satm & soct not known, one should consider also 2 other equations which result in an 8-fold degeneracy

  14. Approaching Terra Firma: Circa 2020 Huber & al Reactor experiments combine well with SB experiments and may be crucial to break degeneracies T2K and NOVA have similar E/L: Combination no optimal First generation SB experiments, together with new reactor experiments will go for discovery. If they see a signal, they will open the way to a next generation of neutrino experiments.

  15. Second Generation Super-Beams Apply the principle of bigger is better (caballo grande, ande o no ande) Enormous power ~4 MW Large detectors (~1Mton water Cerenkov) Notice: A second-generation super-beam comes as a by-product of the neutrino factory (but not necessarily as a by product of a beta-beam) T2K (phase II), SPL at CERN

  16. CERN-SPL High power, low-energy neutrino super-beam

  17. MTON water detector

  18. Performance of SPL SB Burguet, Casper, Hernández, Mezzetto, JJGC

  19. stat+5%syst. stat+2%syst. (signal+BG) stat only stat+10%syst. no BG signal stat only Systematic errors kajita Super-Beams have some intrinsic limitations to its ultimate performance Intrinsic beam background Systematic errors in flux determination Cross sections Dependence of sensitivity with overall systematic error

  20. Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams (2020--) Measure (q13,d) Neutrino mass hierarchy CP violation phenomena

  21. Fluxes from muon and radioactive b ions decay

  22. Neutrino Factory ADR, Gavela, Hernández S. Geer

  23. 1 mm t n Pb Emulsion layers Detectors for NUFACT 10 x Minos 5 x Opera 10 x Icarus Migliozzi Cervera, Didak, JJGC Rubbia, Bueno, Campanelli

  24. Golden & Silver channels at NUFACT ADR, Gavela, Hernández Donini, Migliozzi, Meloni

  25. How to solve degeneracies Burguet. Hernández, JJGC Use spectral information on oscillation signals experiment with energy resolution Combine experiments differing in E/L (and/or matter effects)  need two experiments Include other flavor channels: silver channel nent. Need a tau-capable detector

  26. Solving degeneracies at NUFACT SPLSB+NF donini

  27. Sensitivity of NUFACT

  28. Beta Beam P. Zucchelli

  29. BB: The low gamma scenario Mezzetto Lindroos

  30. NUFACT vs Low-gamma BB P. Hernández

  31. 8-fold Degeneracy in low-gamma BB S. Rigolín

  32. BB+SB Sensitivity of low gamma BB+SPL Poorer performance than Comparable facility, JHF-HK

  33. Higher-gamma Beta Beam Low-gamma beta-beam: Conservative design sticking to today-technology solutions for acceleration and storage scheme. But higher energies can be achieved at CERN and elsewhere. One could imagine higher gamma factors: 125(250) -- pushing the SPS acceleration capabilities 350 (500) -- refurbished SPS, Tevatron…. 2500 (4160) --- LHC Beta-Beam belongs to the Terra Incognita era (> 2020). One should seriously explore all available options and not stick to the conservative (convenient?) one.

  34. Higher-gamma Beta Beam example P. Hernández

  35. Major Physics improvement

  36. Sensitivity Intermediate BB

  37. New results: SPS limit gamma Consider the maximum gamma factor that could be delivered by the SPS. This option is basically as “conservative” as the low beta option However, ion energy is in a better range for physics g-He=150 g-Ne=250

  38. Sensitivity as a function of distance Current design (or simpler!) Much improved sensitivity (but need to go to around 300 km!)

  39. The options compared

  40. High Energy BB What if q13 is very small? And it would be feasible to accelerate/store/extract heavy ions at the LHC? Migliozzi

  41. On the sea First generation Super-Beams (T2K and NOVA) will allow us to cross the sea and reach Terra Incógnita by observing subleading transitions. To explore Terra Incognita, we need to burn our ships and build new facilities which will provide pure, intense and understood neutrino beams. These are the NuFACT and/or the Beta-Beam.

  42. On Terra Firma The Beta-Beam offers and alternative/complement to the Neutrino Factory. Different technology, different systematic errors and different E/L. Combination of both facilities is ideal to solve degeneracies. A future beta-beam facility will need for ultimate sensitivity 1Mton class detector. Such a detector has a great physics potential (proton decay, supernova observatory) of their own, but it is extraordinarily challenging to build (10-20 times the size of Super-Kamiokande). Costs and design effort from the machine side must be balanced with the effort, costs and time scale of such a detector.

  43. On Terra Firma For best physics performance of the Beta Beam, higher neutrino energies are preferable to lower ones. Increasing the energy results in increasing the base-line. One cannot therefore fix the detector site or the machine site, but not both of them at the same time, before understanding the best operative energy. Terra Firma is probably still twenty years ahead us. This is the time to carefully consider all the possibilities, and let physics steer our ships.

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