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Cognition: Memory How Does your Memory Work 1 of 5 - BBC Horizon Documentary.flv

Cognition: Memory How Does your Memory Work 1 of 5 - BBC Horizon Documentary.flv

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Cognition: Memory How Does your Memory Work 1 of 5 - BBC Horizon Documentary.flv

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  1. Cognition: MemoryHow Does your Memory Work 1 of 5 - BBC Horizon Documentary.flv

  2. Unit Overview • The Phenomenon of Memory • Information Processing • Forgetting • Memory Construction • Improving Memory Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.

  3. The Phenomenon of MemoryUnderstanding Memory[1].flv With no memory, How would you answer the question: How are you today? Who would you be? How would your identity be affected? The Memory Exhibition: Memory Games & More | Exploratorium

  4. Introduction134_Models_of_Memory.mp4 • Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage & retrieval of information. • It is the Storehouse reserve of all learning • Indicator that learning has occurred over time • Ability to store & retrieve information

  5. Extremes of Memory • Studying memory EXTREMES helps us understand HOW memory works. • MEMORY EXTREMES: • Memory loss • Memory “Olympiads” • Memory capacity via recall of unique & highly emotional moments (flashbulb memories). Memories attached to emotionally significant moments of events--- hallmarked by striking clarity • False flashbulb memories

  6. Information Processing

  7. Information ProcessingPsychology- Short and Long Term Memory.flv • Encoding: processing of information into the memory systems – for example, by extracting meaning • Storage: the retention of encoded information over time. • Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage

  8. Atkinson-Shiffrins Classical 3 Stages Processing Model of Memory • Sensory memorythe immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. • We first register fleeting to-be-remembered info as a fleeting “sensory memory” • Short-term memoryactivated memory that holds a few items briefly, (7 digit phone # while dialing before the info is stored or forgotten. • Where we process info into a “bin” then encode it thru rehearsal • Long-term memorythe relatively permanent & limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, & experiences. • Final step, info moves into this “place” & is encoded for later retrieval

  9. Atkinson Shiffrin Model • Historically significant • Helpfully simple • Limited & fallible process • Today updated modified version of this are used to understand and study basic memory

  10. Modified version of the 3-stage processing model of memory incorporates two basic NEW concepts • Info directly into Long-Term memory: skips the first 2 stages & processes info directly & automatically into Long-Term memory w/o conscious awareness • Working memorynewer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory & visual-spatial information, & of info retrieved from long-term memory.

  11. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  12. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  13. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  14. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  15. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  16. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  17. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  18. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  19. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  20. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  21. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  22. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory

  23. Encoding: Getting Information InHow We Encode • Automatic Processing • Parallel processing • Automatic processing • Space • Time • Frequency • Well-learned information

  24. Encoding: Getting Information InHow We Encode • Effortful Processing • Rehearsal (conscious repetition) • Ebbinghaus curve- studied memory scientifically. Novel verbal material

  25. Encoding: Getting Information InHow We Encode • Ebbinghaus curve

  26. Encoding: Getting Information In • Overlearning- additional rehearsal of already learned behavior increases retention & recall • Spacing effect • Massed practice- learning w/ no intervals or short intervals btwn successive bouts of learning • Few but long = short term recall • Distributed practice- learning w/ reasonably long intervals between separate occasions of learning • Short but many = long term recall • Testing effect -higher probability of recalling an item resulting from the act of retrieving the item from memory (testing) vs additional study trials of the item

  27. Encoding: Getting Information In • Serial position effect • Recency effect • Last item may still be in working memory- easier to recall • Primacy effect • After a delay recall is best for the 1st thing

  28. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Levels of Processing • Visual encoding • Images of pictures • Acoustic encoding • Sound especially words • Semantic encoding • meaning, including the meaning of words • Self-reference effect- especially good recall for info we can relate to ourselves

  29. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  30. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  31. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  32. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode

  33. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Visual Encoding • Imagery- mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combo’d w/ semantic encoding • Rosy retrospection- • Tendency to recall events more + than they actually were • Mnemonicsmemory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery & organizational devices. • Peg-word system

  34. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding • Chunking • acronym

  35. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding • Chunking • acronym

  36. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding • Chunking • acronym

  37. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding • Chunking • acronym

  38. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding • Chunking • acronym

  39. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding • Chunking • acronym

  40. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding We more easily recall info when we can organize it. • Chunking • acronym

  41. Encoding: Getting Information InWhat We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding • Hierarchies - increase efficiency. this is what outlining is!

  42. Storage: Retaining Information • Heart of Memory= STORAGE • Storage capacity= unlimited • Memory in LONG TERM storage lie dormant waiting for REconstruction by a cue. • 1st Memory Storage Stage? Noted in A-S 3 stage Model… • Sensory Memory

  43. Storage: Retaining InformationSensory Memory • 1st to register sensory info in • Momentary length • Sperling’s memory experiment- • Demonstrated that we have a fleeting photographic memory • Iconic memorymomentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few 10ths of a second. • Echoic memorymomentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled w/in 3 or 4 seconds.

  44. Storage: Retaining InformationWorking/Short-Term Memory • Manage info here; new & old • W/O active processing STM has limited life; in duration & capacity • Magic number Seven: + or – 2 • The list of magic sevens : 7 wonders of world, 7 seas, 7 deadly sins, 7 primary colors, 7 musical scale notes, 7 days of the week • Slightly better recall for random #s than letters • Slightly better recall for what we hear vs. see • Can recall appx as many words as we can speak in 2 seconds • Suppressing rehearsal reduces recall

  45. Storage: Retaining InformationLong-Term Memory Unlimited nature of long-term memory

  46. Storage: Retaining InformationStoring Memories in the Brain Memories do not reside in a single, specific spot • Synaptic Changes electrical activity passes along these connections to neurons • Memory trace- path of the memory, but where is it? • Synapse – site where nerve cells communicate w/ one another thru neurotransmitter messages

  47. Memory Formation • Memory begin as impulses whizzing thru brain circuits that leave neural “traces”… but where does the change occur? Synapse? • Synapse site where nerve cells communicate with each other • Frequent, repeated use strengthens & increases efficiency of signals • Increased synaptic efficiency = more efficient neural circuits • Rapid stimulation of memory circuits = increased sensitivity for hrs or even weeks… meaning the sending neuron now needs less stimulation to release its neurotransmitter … & the retrieving neuron’s receptor site needs may increase in number. • PROLONGED STRENGTHENING of potential neural firing is called

  48. Storage: Retaining InformationStoring Memories in the Brain • Long-term potentiation - increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory. (LTP) • Memory boosting drugs • CREB- protein that switches genes off or on. With repeated firing, a nerve cell’s genes produce synapse= strenghenin proteins, enabling LTMs’ to form. So… boosting CRE production might lead to increased production of proteins that help reshap synapses & consolidate a STM into LTM • Glutamate- boosting this brain neurotransmitter that enhances synaptic communication (LTP). SO FAR WE HAVE NOT SEEN SUCH A DRUG WITHOUT NASTY SIDE IFFECTS & WITHOUT CLUTTERING THE MND WITH TRIVIA BETTER FORGOTTEN IS UP IN THE AIR

  49. Storage: Retaining InformationStoring Memories in the Brain Stress Hormones & Memory Stress hormones make > glucose energy available to fuel brain activity, signaling the brain that something important has happened. The AMYGDALA boost activity in the brain’s memory forming areas Result: arousal which can “sear” certain events into the brain, while disrupting memories for neutral events around the same time… sustained stress is not good, however • Emotions & memories-Therefore, Strong emotional events create strong, more reliable memories C:\Users\mburt\Desktop\AP Psych\Memory\137_Enhancing_Memory.mp4 • Flashbulb memory- = a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. Flashbulb 0001.flv