In less convoluted terms: Look at the ways that water is used at the regional scale. Examine the environmental and human factors affecting where and when physical and economic water scarcity occurs. Examine the factors affecting access to safe drinking water.
VIDEO TASK Water use at the regional scale http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HW5eBfZhE4M
Water use concepts • PEAK WATER – NOT running out of water 1. RENEWABLE PEAK WATER 2. NON-RENEWABLE PEAK WATER 3. PEAK ECOLOGICAL WATER http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkP5IzF51is
What is water used for? http://www.grida.no/graphicslib/detail/freshwater-use-by-sector-at-the-beginning-of-the-2000s_14b3#
Water scarcity types Physical Water Scarcity:Where the demand for water is greater than the supply of water. Physical water scarcity does not have to be an arid environment, because the demand for water in arid environments (deserts) is normally low meaning, there is no shortage or scarcity.Economic Water Scarcity:Where there is water available, but for some economic reason it is not possible to fully utilise the source of water. This might because extraction or transportation costs are too high, or because the water is polluted and it is not possible to treat it.
VIDEO TASK Physical water scarcity – where (patterns) and when (trends)? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XGgYTcPzexE#t=170
VIDEO TASK Economic water scarcity – where (patterns) and when (trends)?
Human (growing demand) and Environmental (falling supply) Causes of Water Scarcity http://www.ifpri.org/blog/what-s-really-causing-water-scarcity-africa-south-sahara POPULATION GROWTH POLLUTION DOMESTIC DEMAND + INCREASED INC0MES http://growingblue.com/implications-of-growth/ LEISURE + TOURISM INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE + ENERGY http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz/ABRASHNM/ POLITICS + MISMANAGEMENT SEWAGE CLIMATE CHANGE + GROUNDWATER INTRUSION
Physical Scarcity Case Study - The Aral Sea The Aral sea is an inland lake on the border of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The Aral Sea used to be the fourth largest inland lake in the world, with a surface area of 68,000km2. The sea is fed by two rivers, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. Since the 1960's the sea has been shrinking because they were diverted by USSR to irrigate the desert to increase their production of melons, rice, wheat and cotton. Rice and cotton both need extremely high amounts of water to grow. Because the irrigation canals were built quickly, it has been estimated that up to 75% waslost through evaporation or leakage. Even today, only 12% of Uzbekistan's irrigation canals are lined to stop leakage.Between 1960 and 1988 the surface of the Aral Sea shrank by nearly 60% and its volume by up to 80%. By 2007 it was only 10% of its original size and its salinity had increased to 100 /L (normal seawater is only about 35 g/L).The rapidly increasing salinity has largely killed the sea's ecosystem. Huge salt plains have appeared as more water is evaporated. The salt on the plains is often whipped up in storms, killing crops and also cooling winters and warming summers. The fishing industry has collapsed and residents health worsened due to inhalation of salt, a lack of clean water and food shortages. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3107915.stm
Economic Scarcity Case Study – Coca Cola in Rajasthan, India Coca-Cola established a bottling plant in the village of Kaladera in Rajasthan at the end of 1999. Rajasthan is well known as a desert state, and Kaladera is a small, impoverished village characterised by semi-arid conditions. Farmers rely on access to groundwater for the cultivation of their crops. but since Coca-Cola's arrival, they have been confronted with a serious decline in water levels. Locals are increasingly unable to irrigate their lands and sustain their crops, putting whole families at risk of losing their livelihoods. Local villagers testify that Coca-Cola's arrival exacerbated an already precarious situation. Official documents from the government's water ministry show that water levels remained stable from 1995 until 2000, when the Coca-Cola plant became operational. Water levels then dropped by almost 10 metres over the following five years. Locals fear Kaladera could become a 'dark zone', the term used to describe areas that are abandoned due to depleted water resources. However, the government data showed water table decline of 1.83 metres in Kala Dera compared with those of other villages: 2.39 m in Chomu, 2.28 m in Jaipur and 2.43 m in Tigariya. Coca- Cola claims this is the result of "water stewardship’’ by a responsible company with "expertise in water management’’. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/asia/july-dec08/waterwars_11-17.html
Safe Drinking Water “potable”
Increasing access to clean water – drastic measures in the Middle East • Per capita supply falling from 200m3 to 90m3 in 30 years. Only Turkey has surplus but unwilling to share. • 19 of 21 Yemeni aquifers no longer replenished. • Libya spent $20bn pumping unreplenishable wells. • 1500 desalinisation plants in Mediterranean and Gulf; 2/3 world’s desalinated water (expensive and GHG emissions). • Concentrated salt streams contaminate aquifers and kill marine life. • Masdar (sustainable eco-settlement). • Grass verges on highways replaced with concrete. • Environmental Awareness Clubs – inter school competitions to reduce water consumption. • 2000 mosques in Abu Dhabi have water saving devices (reduces consumption by 4 million gallons per year). • The UAE, which includes Abu Dhabi and Dubai, has started to build the world's largest underground reservoir, with 26,000,000m3 of desalinated water. It will store enough water for 90 days when completed. The reasoning is that the UAE is now wholly dependent on desalination to survive. • Increasing access to clean water – local scale • A personal LifeStraw unit should be able to purify about 1,000 litres (2.7 litres a day) meaning that it will last a year before it needs to be replaced. There are no replacement parts; users must get a new unit each year.
Afghanistan - war Chad – civil conflict Horn of Africa - drought Papua New Guinea – remote rural population http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fL4wJAOaKhc In PNG, 85% popn lives in hard to reach rural areas. Lack of infrastructure = 4.2M without access to clean water. This is 3/5 of popn. In Chad, 25% popn have no access to clean water. Poor sanitation (5%) leads to contamination. In Afghanisatan, 27% popn have no access to clean water. Poor infrastructure from war.
Decreasing access to clean water - Ethiopia • 9/10 households does not treat their drinking water. • Great disparity in ‘improved sources’: 95% in urban areas, 42% in rural regions. • Sanitation is mirrored: 88% urban, 56% rural. • The government's budgetary allocation to the water sector has been decreasing over the years, "declining almost by half - from 4% in 2006 to 2.5% in 2010“ (WaterAid). • Decreasing access to clean water – China • Toxic spill of cadmium into Liu River (Liuzhou). • Cadmium is a carcinogen – levels are 8 times higher than ‘safe’. • 6 metal companies and one mine suspected. • 300 tonnes of aluminium chloride added to the river to dilute. • Private stores of bottled water cleared. • Decreasing access to clean water – Bangladesh • Salinity in Bangladesh's coastal areas has increased, causing a lack of drinkable water. Current level 20 pp1000; human body tolerates 5pp1000. • Women in coastal areas need to travel miles to collect a pitcher of safe drinking water. Environmental refugees from erosion too. • For coastal areas the amount of arsenic in the groundwater is also very high. Deep wells required (over 150m deep). Double-up with Horn of Africa Drought (Hazards)