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Radiation

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Radiation

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  1. Radiation

  2. Radiation Scare • Atomic Bomb - Hiroshima Aug. 6,1945 Nagasaki Aug. 9, 1945 • Three Mile Island - 1979 • Chernobyl - 1986

  3. Radiation - Positive Uses • Medical Diagnosis • Medical Treatment • Food Irradiation • Mail Irradiation • Energy • Defense • Industrial

  4. Nuclear Scientist • Ernest Rutherford • Wilhelm Roentgen • Henri Becquerel • Pierre & Marie Curie • Niels Bohr • Max Planck • James Chadwick • Otto Hahn

  5. Einstein’s Formula E=MC2

  6. Atomic Scientist

  7. Manhattan Project • J. Robert Oppenheimer • General Leslie R. Graves • Edward Teller, Luis Alvarez, Eugene Wigner, Maurice Wilkins, etc, etc • Los Alamos - 1943 • 2 billion cost • 125,000 people involved

  8. Atomic Bomb • August 2, 1939 - Einstein’s letter to FDR warning about Germany’s effort to purify U-235 • Manhattan Project 1939 - 1945 • July 16, 1945 first bomb exploded - Gadget Los Alamos NM • August 6, 1945 Hiroshima • August 9, 1945 Nagasaki

  9. Hiroshima • August 6, 1945 dropped from Enola Gay • “Little Boy” 4&1/2 tons • 10 kiloton • 66,000 killed 69,000 injured • Total vaporization one half mile • Total destruction one mile • Everything burned 2 1/2 miles

  10. Nagasaki • August 9, 1945 • Plutonium bomb - “Fat Man” • 10 kilotons • 39,000 killed 25,000 injured • Used only 1/10 of 1 percent of explosive capability

  11. Atomic Bomb Effects • Blast - speed of sound 12.5 miles/min • Heat - fireball vaporizes, inverse square law • Radiation - prompt, inverse square law • Radiation - fallout

  12. Fallout Products • Iodine-131 • Strontium-90 • Cesium-137 • Over 200 radioactive products

  13. Byproducts of A-Bomb • Radioactive fallout for miles in rain • Radiation poisoning • Increased incidence of cancer - leukemia • Genetics effects on future generations • Massive disruption of communications, travel and machinery • Electro - Magnetic pulse scrambles electronics in copper wires - 50 miles

  14. Blast Effects20 Megatons • Vaporization 8.75 • Total Destruction 14 • Severe Blast Damage 27 • Severe Heat Damage 31 • Severe Fire, Wind 35

  15. Blast Effects 20 Megatons • Vaporization 8.75 • Total Destruction 14 • Severe Blast Damage 27 • Severe Heat Damage 31 • Severe Fire , Wind 35

  16. Dirty Bomb • Uses conventional explosives • Radioactive material inside • Most likely radioactive material is Cesium-137 Half life 30years • Creates more terror, havoc and panic rather than immediately kill

  17. Radiation Units • R - Roentgen amount of ionization in air • Rad - radiation absorbed dose • Rem - radiation equivalent man • Sievert (Sv) - international unit of radiation equivalency • Gray (Gy) - unit for energy absorbed • 1Gy = 1Sv = 100 rad = 100 rem

  18. Curie & Becquerel (Bq) • 1 Bq is 1 disintegration/sec • 1 curie = 37 Billion Bq 3.7X10x10 • 1 MBq = 27 microcuries • 1 GBq = 27 millicuries • 37 GBq = 1curies • 1 TBq = 27 curies

  19. Background Radiation Sources • Earth - food and water • Space - cosmic rays • Atmosphere - Radon gas from earth’s crust

  20. Airport X-Ray Security Scanners • Backscatter superficial scanning • Dose - 0.1 microsevert • Would need to go through the scanner 1000X times to equql a chest X-ray or 200,000 times to equal a CT scan • Scan daily for your entire life wouldn’t equal a CT scan