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1. Physical Features of the Punjab PowerPoint Presentation
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1. Physical Features of the Punjab

1. Physical Features of the Punjab

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1. Physical Features of the Punjab

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  1. 1. Physical Features of the Punjab

  2. Introduction :- The Punjab – The land of five Rivers sutlez, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum. The word “Punjab” is derived from Persian words. Punj (Five) and Ab (water or Rivers) the land of Five Rivers. Different name of the Punjab • Sapt – sindhu • Pan hananda • Pantapotamia • Uttarapath • Tse – kai. I The Himalayas and its ranges. II The sub – Mountain region. III The plains.

  3. Doab of Punjab :- • The Bist Jullundur Doab. • The Bari Doab. • The RachnaDoab. • The ChhajDoab. • The SindhSagarDoab. • Climate, Rainfall and soil. • Flora and Fauna. • Agricultural and mineral products.

  4. The Influence of Physical Features of Punjab. (A) Political Effects • The Punjab as the Gateway of India. • The prosperity of Punjab OR The center of attraction for the foreign invader. 3. Punjab the arena of decisive battle of India. 4. The problem of defense of the North west – Frontier OR Foreign invasions the rough the North western ranges. 5. Effect on the system of Government. 6. Influence upon the Punjabi characters. 7. Set-back to Art and Literature OR loss to Art and Literature. 8. Effect of rivers. 9. Effect of Hill and Forest.

  5. (B) Economic effects • Economic prosperity of the Punjab. • Agriculture The main occupation of the people. OR Punjab as an agriculture oriented. • Trade relations with foreign countries. • Growth of commercial cities – Lahore, Multan, Amritsar, sirhind. • Self-sufficient unites. (C) Social effects • Unique culture of the Punjab. • Brave nature of the Punjabi OR Martial races of Punjab. 3. Social changes introduced in Punjab. 4. The Punjab – a hub of civilization.

  6. (D)Religions effects • Growth of Hinduism. • Spread of Islam in Punjab. • Birth and Growth of Sikhism. • Hinduism become unpopular in the long run.

  7. 2.Harappan Culture

  8. INTRODUCTION :- In 1921-22 A.D. as a result of the excavations made by R.D. Bannerji, Ram sahni, sir John marshal and Mortimer wheeler at Mohenjodaro and Harappa, a new civilization came in to lime light, which is known as Harappan Culture. • MAIN CENTRES :- Harappa ( in Montgomery districts of Pakistan) Mohenjodaro (in Larkana district of Sindh province) Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Rangpur, Lothal (Gujarat) KotlaNihang khan, Sanghal (Punjab) Banvali, Mitathal (Haryana) , Alamgirpur (U.P.)

  9. Town Planning :- • Roads • Drainage System • Houses of Residence • The Great Bath at Mohenjodaro • The Great Granary at Harappa • Assembly Hall • Collegiate Building OR Education center, (II) Social life :- • Diet, Dress and ornaments (2) Make-Up • Means of Entertainment • Condition of women • Household Articles (6) medicines • Education • Disposal of Dead.

  10. (III) Economic life :- • Agriculture and Rearing of Animal. • Other occupation • Trade and commerce • weights and measurements • Art and Industry • Hunting and Fishing • Use of Metals (IV) Religious life :- • worship of Mother Goddess • worship of PashupatiNath (shiva) • worship of Animal and Tree worship • worship of water Fire and Sun • worship of Lings and yoni • Faith in magic and charms Conclusion :- Indus valley cavitations is considered one of the most developed cavitations of the World.

  11. 3.The Indo-Aryans

  12. INTRODUCTION :-The word “Aryan” means nobles and of good Family. The Aryan race is considered one of the oldest and most celebrated races of the world. They were very fair and tall. Physically they were strong and well-built- up. According Dr. RadhakumudMookerjee ‘The Indian History is essentially the history of the Aryans.” • ORIGINAL HOME OF THE ARYANS :- There are different views about the original home of the Aryans. • Central Asian Theory-Prof. max Muller, the German Scholar • Sapt-sindhu Theory-A.C. Das and Dr. Sampurnanad. • Theory of North pole-Bal GangadharTilak. • Tibetan Theory-Swami DayanandSaraswati • The Austro-Hungarin Theory-Dr. P. Giles

  13. Social, Economic, Religious and Political Life of the Aryans • Social Life :- • Family life • Position of women • Ashramas System • Caste System • Education • Diet, Dress and ornaments • Means of Entertainment (II) Economic Life :- • Rearing of Animals • Agriculture • Other occupation • Trade and commerce

  14. (III) Religious Life :- • worship of Nature • Mode of worship • Yajna and sacrifice • Belief in soul • Principal of karma • No Image worship (IV) Political Life :- • king and his duties • Govt. officials • Sabha and samiti • Judicial system • Mode of warfare

  15. Conclusion • Vedic Civilization and Culture is considered one of the most developed civilizations of the world.

  16. 4. Caste System

  17. Origin and evolution of caste system :- caste is that division of human society whose basis is occupation, ability and birth According to ShriShamaShastri – “Mutual union of people in social subject like marriage and Food is called “caste” Main caste are Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras. These castes were formed on the basis of professions which the individuals followed.

  18. Origin of the caste system :- • On the basis of colour • On the basis of PurshSukta • On the basis of Division of Labour • Divine origin (3) Different between Varnas and castes :- • Varna system started during the Rig-Vedic Age but caste system started during later Vedic Age. • Meaning of Varna – Colour of bodies (Aryans and Non Aryans.) • Meaning of caste : - birth in any special community and their fixes occupation.

  19. Factors Responsible for the Growth of caste system:- • Influence of the Brahmans. • Migration of Groups • New occupation • Foreign invaders. • Jainism and Buddhism and the Principle of Ahimsa • Check on the Inter caste marriages. • The Impact of Islam • New Religious sects – Sikh, kabirPanthis, Lingyat sect • Change of customs • Adoption of New Religious practices.

  20. Growth of caste system :- • Caste system in Vedic and later Vedic age • Caste system in the Age of Gautam Buddha and Mahavir swami. • Caste system in the Age of Mauryans, Gupta and Vardhanas. • Caste system in the Age of Raj puts • Caste system in Muslim Age • Caste system in modern Age

  21. Merits of the caste system :- • Preservation of Hindu Religion and culture. • Increase in the number of Hindu. • Solved the problem of Unemployment. • Promoted Economic strength and Efficiency in profession. • Purity of Blood. • High moral character. • Development of feeling of Brotherhood. • Proper functioning of society. • Simple education. • Social service.

  22. Demerits of the caste system :- • Decline of National Unity. • Limited Military Training • A Disintegrating factor. • Against the principle of Equality. • Evil of untouchability. • Check on the personal Development. • Mutual jealousy. • Anti Democratic • Check on the Association with foreigners • A check on the progress of Hinduism • Narrow outlook. • Against to universal Brotherhood • Narrow marriage circle • Conversion of Hindus to Islam and Christianity

  23. The Future of caste system • After freedom in New constitution-caste system and Untouchability have been declared illegal.

  24. 5. The Ramayana and Mahabharat

  25. The Epic age – 2000 to 700 BC • The Epics – the Ramayana and Mahabharat • The Ramayana and its Age • The Ramayana and its Historical importance • The Mahabharat and its Age • The Mahabharat ad its Historical Impotence

  26. Historical importance of the Epics. (A) Political importance • Expansion of the Aryans. • Growth of powerful and Big empires. • Increase in the power of the king. • Mantriparishad and state officials. • Subha and sumiti • Justice • Sources of Income • Mode of warfare OR military organization

  27. (B) Social Importance • Family as an important institution • Position of women • Caste system • Ashrams system • Diet, Dress ornaments 6. Entertainment 7. Supremacy of the kshatriyas 8. Moral degeneration of the Nobility. (c) Religious Importance • Emergence and importance of New Gods. • Yajnas and sacrifices • Importance of the Brahmans in the society • Belief in Re-birth, karma and moksha • Faith in magic • Importance of philosophy in the Religion.

  28. (D)Economic importance • Agriculture – The main occupation • Domestication of Animals • Other occupation • Trade and commerce • Growth of Big cities • Knowledge of Metals • Knowledge of Medicine

  29. 6. Jainism and Buddhisim

  30. Introduction :-6th Century B.C. is called the period of religious revolution in India. (A)Teachings of Mahavir Swami • Five Mahavrat 1. Satya – Truth 2. Ahimsa – Non-violence • Asteya – Not to receive anything which is not freely given 4. Aprigraha – Non-Possession of Property 5. Brahamcharya – Unmarried life

  31. (ii) Tri Ratnas 1. True Faith 2. True knowledge 3. True action (iii) Philosophy of karma (iv) Moksha (v) Fast and meditation (vi) No belief in fod (vii) Opposed to caste system (viii) No belief in yajna and sacrifec (ix) No belief in vedas and holiness of sanskrit language

  32. Teachings of Buddhism (i) Four Noble Truths • Sorrows and suffering. • Causes of the Sorrows. • To get rid of Sorrow. • Way to end of Sorrow. (ii) Eight Fold Path (Middle Path) • Right Faith. • Right thought • Right Speech. • Right action. • True way of Living. • True effort. • Right Recollection. • Right meditation,

  33. (iii) Moral Life (iv) Non – violence (v) Theory of karma of Rebirth. (vi) Nirvana. (vii) No – Soul Theory. (viii) Silent about the existence of God. (ix) No belief in yajnas and sacrifice. (x) No belief in caste system (xi) No belief in hard penance and Fasting (xii) No Faith in the vedas and sanskrit. (xiii) Challenge to the Brahmnicalsupermacy. Conclusion :- Thus, Both the Jainism and Buddhism gave valuable contribution to Indian culture in many fields.

  34. 7. ALEXANDER’S Invasion

  35. Introduction :- Alexander was the son of Philip, king of Macedonia (Greece). He invaded India in 326 B.C. (B) Causes of Alexander’s Invasion :- • Desire to conquer world. • Wealth of India. • Weak Political Condition of India. • Invitation by Indian Rulers for Invasion. • Defective mode of warfare. • No attention to the defense of the Boundary. • Desire of Geographical information.

  36. (C) Impact of Alexendess Invasion • Rise of Chandragupta Maurya. • Contribution in the construction of History. • Change in warfare Strategy. • New routes opened for Trade and Communication. • Impact in the field of Art. • Evolution of Gandhar School of Art. • Influence of Language, Literature, Astrology and medicine • The Indians learnt the art of making coins from the Greeks • Mutual contact between Indian and Greek Culture.

  37. Conclusion • The above facts make it clear that Alexander’s invasion was an important incident in the Indian History.

  38. 8. The Mauryan Empire

  39. (1) Introduction:- The Mauryan dynasty created great emperors like Chandra Gupta Maurya and Ashoka and Indians are proud of them. (II) Conghesrs of chandra Gupta Maurya • Conquests of Punjab -322 B.C. • Conquests of Magadha-321 B.C. • Defeat of seleucus-305 B.C. • Conquests of western India. • Conquests of south India. • Extent of the empire :- His empire was from Himalaya in North to Mysore in south and from Bengal in East to sea in west. Afghanistan and Baluchistan in North west and up to the Arabian sea in the west.

  40. (III) Ashoka’sDhamma :- Ashoka Preached some ethic principles among his subjects through his inscriptions. These ethic principles collectively are termed as Ahoka’sDhamma or Dharma. (A) Main principles of Dhamma • Respect of Elders. • Love with younger's. • Truth • Moral life • Self-Examination • Non-Violence • Charity • True Ceremonies. • Religious Tolerance • Karma Theory

  41. (B) Ashoka’s Efforts to spread Dhamma :- • Personal Examples • Religious Tours. • Dharma mahamatras. • Inscription. • Instructions to Government officials. (C) Importance of Dhamma :- • Dharmma-vijay in place of Digvijay. • Moral life of the people • Social unity • Decline in the Number of crimes • Works of public welfare • Ashoka’s popularity. • Decline of the mauryan Empire.

  42. (D) The Mauryan Administration (A) Civil Administration :- (i) Central Administration • The king • The council of Ministers • Prime minister • Purohit (Minister for Religious affairs) • Dowarik (Minister for Royal Palace) • Samaharta ( Finance Minister) • Sannidhata (Minister of Treasury) • Vyavaharik (Law Minister) • Dandapal (Police officer) • Senapati ( Commander – in – chief of army) • Durgapala ( Misister for Forts) • Karmantik ( Minister of Mines and Factories)

  43. (ii ) Provincial Administration – The names of the provinces were • Magadha-its capital was pataliputra • North –western Province Gandhara – Its Capital was Taxila. • Western Province Avanti :- Its capital was Ujjain. • Southern Province – Its Capital was Suvarnagiri. • District Adminiseration– The provinces were divided into disricts Called “Ahara” or “vish”. Its head was called vishpati. (iv) Administration of cities– The administration of big cities like patlipura, Taxila, and Ujjain was under the charge of a “Nagar Adhyaksh”. (v) Village Adminstration– The head of the village was “Gramini” or “Gramik” Who was assisted by panchayat.

  44. (vi) Financial Administration • Land Revenue System - 1/4 of Net Production • Other Sources of Income. • Expenditure (Vii) Judicial System (Viii) Spy system (B) Military Administration • Large and Powerful Army • Military council. • Weapons of war • Rewards. • Constriction of Forts.

  45. 9. The Gupta Empire

  46. Achievements of Samundragupta (335 A.D. – 375 A.D.) • Conquests of Samundragupta. • Conquests of North India. • Conquests of South India. • Conquests of Border States. • Relations with foreign power. • Ashavamedha yajna • Extent of Empire.

  47. Achievements of Chandra Gupta – II Vikramaditya, (375 A.D.- 414 A.D.) • Conquests of Chandra Gupta II. • Conquests of Saka - Satrapas. (Malwa and Gujarat) • War against vanga. (west – Bengal) • Conquests of vahilka. • Matrimonial alliances of Chandra Gupta II. • Extent of Empire.

  48. Social, Economic, Cultural and Scientific development under Guptas. (i)Social life • Joint Family system • Position of women. • Ashram system • Caste system • Position of slaves. • Devdasi System. • Diet, Dress and ornaments. • Means of entertainment.

  49. (ii) Economic Life • Agriculture and Rearing of Animals. • Other occupation • Guild system. • Trade and commerce. (iii) Cultural and Scientific development • Architecture. • Sculpture. • Painting. • Literature. • Science and Technology.

  50. 10. The age of Vardhanas