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Section Three: Latin American Music

Section Three: Latin American Music

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Section Three: Latin American Music

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  1. Section Three:Latin American Music

  2. Four Major Categories of Latin American Music • Indigenous Music • Iberian (Spanish/Portuguese) and mestizo (mixed ancestry) Folk Music • African influenced Music • Urban Popular Music

  3. Indigenous Peoples • Mexico and Central America: Aztec, Maya, and Inca. • South America, over 100 languages and 2000 dialects. • Several conquests over the past 500 years, Spanish or Portuguese; genocide of much indigenous population, early 16th century

  4. Instruments • Indigenous music • Flutes, ocarinas, conches, panpipes, and various percussion instruments • Vocal music, often associated with rituals and hymns • Post-colonial • String instruments, related to violin, harp, guitars • Other wind instruments including accordion, and brass instruments.

  5. South AmericaAndes Mountain Region

  6. Andes Village Musicians, featuring panpipes & drums

  7. More panpipes

  8. Chilean Nueva Canción h “El Aparecido” (CD 2:7) • Voice & Instruments including Charango, kena, multiple percussion • sesquialtera = simultaneous feeling of 6/8 and 3/4 meters, such as this Chilean “cueca” rhythm • Variants of both Major and minor scales. • Counterpoint between two different vocal parts. • Reflects (through text) political upheaval, often through metaphor and making hero larger-than-life. • Good example of nueva cancion, a modern and socially conscious musical style and message that draws attention to the struggles for dignity by everyday people.

  9. Bolivian K’antu h “Kutirimunapaq” (CD 2:8) “Hocketing panpipes, with rhythmic melodies played in parallel fifths and octaves and a strong, steady rhythm on a large drum.” • Instruments including multiple (over 20!) zampoña, wankara drum, and ch’inisku (triangle). • hocket = alternating notes of melody among several voices and/or instruments (as in the panpipes of this example). • Doubling of melodic line in parallel octaves and fifths. • Formal structure of ABC, and repeated • Continuous dancing along with the music

  10. The Quichua of the Northern Andes of Ecuador • Comunas (small clusters of houses) on the slopes of Mt. Cotacachi • Language is Quichua

  11. Traditions • Traditional agriculture and material culture • Maize; Cabuya cactus provides fiber • Homes are one room, covered patio, mud walls, dirt floor • Men wear white or blue shirts, white pants, dark poncho, hats; women wear embroidered blouses, shawls, two skirts with two belts; dress not changed much since 16th century

  12. Strong sense of community • Common language, dress, material culture • Same diet of beans and potatoes • Weekly markets • Periodic community work projects • Fiestas • Communication carried by foot; walking, or purina, is vital to daily life

  13. Sanjuán • A type of song played at the festival of St. John the Baptist • A type of dance performed at that festival • Now a popular song form

  14. Harp • Without pedals (one scale) • In the region for hundreds of years • Initially brought from European missionaries • Typically a male occupation

  15. Ensemble Harp

  16. Form of sanjuanes • Strophic • Phrase length often lasts eight beats • Rhythm of first half often identical with second half (isorhythm) • Some sanjuanes are sung, while others are instrumental • Walking and wandering is an important metaphor in text

  17. Ecuadorian Sanjuán hMuyu Muyari Warmigu (CD 2:9) • Imbaburu harp (& golpe) and voice • Double-couplet form • One primary motive (“A” theme) • Alternation between Major & minor - bimodal or just two chords?

  18. Another Ecuadorian Sanjuán hIlumán tiyu (CD 2:10) • Violin, kenas, guitars, drum, and voice • Classic sanjuán • Highly popular song in the 1980s and 1990s • Composer was saying “remember me”

  19. A “Hybrid” Sanjuán hMe Gusta la Leche (CD 2:11) • Rhythm & lead (requinto) guitars, bomba drum, metal güiro, and voice • Blending of many cultures– Quichua, African, Spanish– to make Afro-Ecuadorian music

  20. The Andean Ensemble Phenomenon • Widespread phenomenon in the Andes and beyond • Music making is an important means of socialization among Quichua youths • Featured regularly for tourists • In the United States, many groups have become popular and widely known Peruvian wayno hAmor imposible (CD:12) Performed by Chaskinakuy

  21. Afro-Peruvian Landó hAzúcar de Caña (CD 2:13) • Full ensemble including guitar, bass, drums and percussion instruments such as the Quijada (cow’s jawbone), and solo voice with chorus. • Popular music song form • Text concerned with harvesting, milling (in the trapiche), and using sugar cane (as in guarapo) • Sensuous music, sí?

  22. Dances in South America • Many forms (chacarera, criolla, zamba, cueca, marinera, etc.) • Joropo is the national dance of Venezuela • Another major form is the huayno, which is call sanjuanito or sanjuan in Equador. • Some religious plays/festivals plays include dances.

  23. African Influenced Music • Sub-Saharan African influence significant. • Much stylistic integration; definition of “black” music difficult to make. • Stronger influence than previously thought, especially in the complex rhythms in Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, and Trinidad. • To lesser degree throughout South America.

  24. Carnival or carnaval festivities • In days leading up to Ash Wednesday, many Latin American communities have carnaval festivals and parades • Largest is in Rio De Janiero, Brazil • Many of the spectacular outfits are created in the poor black Favela communities.

  25. Carnaval in Rio De Janiero, Brazil

  26. Some forms had roots in carnival music but also targeted tourists • Major Caribbean forms: • Calypso • Steel band music • Reggae

  27. The Salsa Phenomenon • Cuban son, developed first in New York City among Latino communities made up primarily of Puerto Rican and Cubans • Combines various styles, call-response, polyrhythm, improvisation, and strong percussion.

  28. Urban Popular Music • Through much of 20th Century, Latin rhythms have been popular through the Americas (Harry Belafonte, Andrews Sisters, popular artists like Ricky Martin). • Big band era (Xavier Cugat, Tito Puente, Cuban bands)

  29. Homework - due Monday, 11/28 • Online Quiz, Chapter 8 (“Tutorial Quiz”) • Define the following, using examples: • Sesquialtera • Hocket • Nueva Cancion • Study Questions (p. 300) • 1, 2, and 11

  30. Music of Mexico • Native music of Olmeques, Aztecs, Incas • Mariachi Music • Contemporary popular music

  31. Pre-colonial Music

  32. Instruments Ocarina (at left), and other flutes and wind instruments Drums and Percussion, such as frame drums, rattles, cylindrical drums, and log (slit) drums.

  33. Mariachi

  34. Mariachi Instruments & Costume • Guitar • Guitarra de Golpe • Vihuela • Guitarron • Violin(s) • Trumpet(s) • Voice(s) • Harp [rare] Costume is borrowed from Charros (Mexican cowboy). The “traje” includes fancy, traditional attire including boots, sombrero, snug trousers or skirt, and highly adorned jackets.

  35. Mariachi Music • Mariachi groups have an almost universal repertoire. These include songs such as La Bamba, Cielito Lindo, Jalisco, El Son de la Negra and El Rey. • The definitive song form is the son. The son in indigenous to mariachi music and has several notable characteristics. The rhythmic pattern is an alteration between 3/4 and 6/8 with heavy syncopation. • Trumpets and violins make extensive use a grace notes • Lyrics are often humorous or nonsensical