Four Major Categories of Latin American Music • Indigenous Music • Iberian (Spanish/Portuguese) and mestizo (mixed ancestry) Folk Music • African influenced Music • Urban Popular Music
Indigenous Peoples • Mexico and Central America: Aztec, Maya, and Inca. • South America, over 100 languages and 2000 dialects. • Several conquests over the past 500 years, Spanish or Portuguese; genocide of much indigenous population, early 16th century
Instruments • Indigenous music • Flutes, ocarinas, conches, panpipes, and various percussion instruments • Vocal music, often associated with rituals and hymns • Post-colonial • String instruments, related to violin, harp, guitars • Other wind instruments including accordion, and brass instruments.
Chilean Nueva Canción h “El Aparecido” (CD 2:7) • Voice & Instruments including Charango, kena, multiple percussion • sesquialtera = simultaneous feeling of 6/8 and 3/4 meters, such as this Chilean “cueca” rhythm • Variants of both Major and minor scales. • Counterpoint between two different vocal parts. • Reflects (through text) political upheaval, often through metaphor and making hero larger-than-life. • Good example of nueva cancion, a modern and socially conscious musical style and message that draws attention to the struggles for dignity by everyday people.
Bolivian K’antu h “Kutirimunapaq” (CD 2:8) “Hocketing panpipes, with rhythmic melodies played in parallel fifths and octaves and a strong, steady rhythm on a large drum.” • Instruments including multiple (over 20!) zampoña, wankara drum, and ch’inisku (triangle). • hocket = alternating notes of melody among several voices and/or instruments (as in the panpipes of this example). • Doubling of melodic line in parallel octaves and fifths. • Formal structure of ABC, and repeated • Continuous dancing along with the music
The Quichua of the Northern Andes of Ecuador • Comunas (small clusters of houses) on the slopes of Mt. Cotacachi • Language is Quichua
Traditions • Traditional agriculture and material culture • Maize; Cabuya cactus provides fiber • Homes are one room, covered patio, mud walls, dirt floor • Men wear white or blue shirts, white pants, dark poncho, hats; women wear embroidered blouses, shawls, two skirts with two belts; dress not changed much since 16th century
Strong sense of community • Common language, dress, material culture • Same diet of beans and potatoes • Weekly markets • Periodic community work projects • Fiestas • Communication carried by foot; walking, or purina, is vital to daily life
Sanjuán • A type of song played at the festival of St. John the Baptist • A type of dance performed at that festival • Now a popular song form
Harp • Without pedals (one scale) • In the region for hundreds of years • Initially brought from European missionaries • Typically a male occupation
Form of sanjuanes • Strophic • Phrase length often lasts eight beats • Rhythm of first half often identical with second half (isorhythm) • Some sanjuanes are sung, while others are instrumental • Walking and wandering is an important metaphor in text
Ecuadorian Sanjuán hMuyu Muyari Warmigu (CD 2:9) • Imbaburu harp (& golpe) and voice • Double-couplet form • One primary motive (“A” theme) • Alternation between Major & minor - bimodal or just two chords?
Another Ecuadorian Sanjuán hIlumán tiyu (CD 2:10) • Violin, kenas, guitars, drum, and voice • Classic sanjuán • Highly popular song in the 1980s and 1990s • Composer was saying “remember me”
A “Hybrid” Sanjuán hMe Gusta la Leche (CD 2:11) • Rhythm & lead (requinto) guitars, bomba drum, metal güiro, and voice • Blending of many cultures– Quichua, African, Spanish– to make Afro-Ecuadorian music
The Andean Ensemble Phenomenon • Widespread phenomenon in the Andes and beyond • Music making is an important means of socialization among Quichua youths • Featured regularly for tourists • In the United States, many groups have become popular and widely known Peruvian wayno hAmor imposible (CD:12) Performed by Chaskinakuy
Afro-Peruvian Landó hAzúcar de Caña (CD 2:13) • Full ensemble including guitar, bass, drums and percussion instruments such as the Quijada (cow’s jawbone), and solo voice with chorus. • Popular music song form • Text concerned with harvesting, milling (in the trapiche), and using sugar cane (as in guarapo) • Sensuous music, sí?
Dances in South America • Many forms (chacarera, criolla, zamba, cueca, marinera, etc.) • Joropo is the national dance of Venezuela • Another major form is the huayno, which is call sanjuanito or sanjuan in Equador. • Some religious plays/festivals plays include dances.
African Influenced Music • Sub-Saharan African influence significant. • Much stylistic integration; definition of “black” music difficult to make. • Stronger influence than previously thought, especially in the complex rhythms in Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, and Trinidad. • To lesser degree throughout South America.
Carnival or carnaval festivities • In days leading up to Ash Wednesday, many Latin American communities have carnaval festivals and parades • Largest is in Rio De Janiero, Brazil • Many of the spectacular outfits are created in the poor black Favela communities.
Some forms had roots in carnival music but also targeted tourists • Major Caribbean forms: • Calypso • Steel band music • Reggae
The Salsa Phenomenon • Cuban son, developed first in New York City among Latino communities made up primarily of Puerto Rican and Cubans • Combines various styles, call-response, polyrhythm, improvisation, and strong percussion.
Urban Popular Music • Through much of 20th Century, Latin rhythms have been popular through the Americas (Harry Belafonte, Andrews Sisters, popular artists like Ricky Martin). • Big band era (Xavier Cugat, Tito Puente, Cuban bands)
Homework - due Monday, 11/28 • Online Quiz, Chapter 8 (“Tutorial Quiz”) • Define the following, using examples: • Sesquialtera • Hocket • Nueva Cancion • Study Questions (p. 300) • 1, 2, and 11
Music of Mexico • Native music of Olmeques, Aztecs, Incas • Mariachi Music • Contemporary popular music
Instruments Ocarina (at left), and other flutes and wind instruments Drums and Percussion, such as frame drums, rattles, cylindrical drums, and log (slit) drums.
Mariachi Instruments & Costume • Guitar • Guitarra de Golpe • Vihuela • Guitarron • Violin(s) • Trumpet(s) • Voice(s) • Harp [rare] Costume is borrowed from Charros (Mexican cowboy). The “traje” includes fancy, traditional attire including boots, sombrero, snug trousers or skirt, and highly adorned jackets.
Mariachi Music • Mariachi groups have an almost universal repertoire. These include songs such as La Bamba, Cielito Lindo, Jalisco, El Son de la Negra and El Rey. • The definitive song form is the son. The son in indigenous to mariachi music and has several notable characteristics. The rhythmic pattern is an alteration between 3/4 and 6/8 with heavy syncopation. • Trumpets and violins make extensive use a grace notes • Lyrics are often humorous or nonsensical