MUSI 207Latin America Chapter 9
Latin AmericanMusic European Music cont. Chapter Presentation Socio-Cultural Heritage Relationship between Musical and Social Values Use of Music to Construct and Express Social Identity Instruments
Socio-Cultural Heritage • Three major socio-cultural heritages have combined to different degrees in different areas to create the contemporary situation: • Indigenous Amer-Indian traditions. Differentiated according to lowland Amazonian and highland Andean groups. • Iberian traditions of Spain and Portugal. Transplanted during the colonial era and differentiated according to social class: criollos(New World-born Spanish or Portuguese) form an elite social group, while mestizos (those of mixed race are lower class. • African traditions. Brought by slaves during the colonial era and still concentrated in coastal areas. • Maroon Villages (http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2012/04/maroon-people/mann-hecht-text )
Relationship between Musical and Social Values Relatively egalitarian communities prefer music with equal participation among members Hierarchical communities prefer music with solo and lead parts.
Use of Music to Construct and Express Social Identity This is a universal phenomenon, but deeper listening reveals that the polyrhythms are not as complex as the African examples.
Instruments • Indigenous (Pre-Columbian): • Teponaztliand tunkul(slit drums), huehuetl(single-headed drum), siku(panpipes), flutes, such as kena(end-notched), pinkly (side-blown), and tarka(duct); and wakrapuku(conch shell trumpet) • European: • Diatonic harp; violin; Spanish guitar and local subtypes such as charango(Peruvian/Bolivian, small body, five groups of strings, and a round or flat back), vihuela(Mexican, small body, five strings, and a convex back), huapanguera(Mexican, eight strings in five courses), jarana(Mexican, small body, five strings), guitarrón(Mexican, large four or five string bass guitar with a round back), cuatro(Venezuelan, small body, four strings), tiple(Colombian, four courses of three strings each) and viola (Brazilian, five strings in double courses); and accordion (piano and button) • African: • Marimba (southern Mexico and Central America) drums, percussion instruments, musical bow, and lamellaphone
For next class Chapter Exam 9 is due Friday Comment on the D2L PowerPoint presentations Read Chapter 9 (pgs. 297-309) on Latin American music