Latin America Mr. Hardy Unit 6 Randolph IB Middle
Deforestation of the Rain Forest and Ecotourism • Main sources of Deforestation: • Human settlement • Land development • Using current rates, the forest will be reduced by 40% in the next two decades. • Why does it matter? • Carbon dioxide in, oxygen out • Climate effects • Natural roots of medicine • Ecotourism: tourism related to exotic environments and ecosystems
Latin American Economy • CAFTA - Central American Free Trade Agreement and LAFTA – Latin American Free Trade Agreement • No tariffs between countries on imports and exports • Easy cross border trading • Exports: coffee, sugarcane, beef, oranges • Tourism • Subsistence Farming - self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families.
From Colonization to Independence • Latin America was colonized by the Spanish and the Portuguese • Revolutions took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries • Why did people revolt? • Resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America
Communism in Latin America • Most countries were ruled by dictators into the 20th Century • The US felt the threat of spreading communism • Strong Communist Movements: • Argentina • Brazil • Bolivia • All of these eventually became military dictatorships. • Cuba (only one that became Communist) • Good Neighbor Policy • Franklin D Roosevelt and the US • non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America
Cuban Revolution • July 26, 1953 – January 1, 1959 • Result • 26th of July Movement victory • Overthrow of Batista’s dictatorship who was backed by the US • Establishment of a socialist state and communist government • led by Fidel Castro • United States implements a trade embargo on Cuba • Lasting Effects: • Travel restrictions • Limited sugar trade
Democracy in Latin America • By the early 90's all countries had restored their democracies (exception: CUBA and potentially Venezuela) • Most took Presidential or Parliamentary Governments
Colombian Armed Conflict • Began in 1964 and continues today • A low intensity war between the government and paramilitary groups along with crime syndicates • 220,000 dead mostly civilians • FARC – Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia • Communist militants • Guerilla Warfare • “Fighting for the rights of the poor!” Social Justice through communism • Drug Trafficking, terrorism, human rights violations
Salvadoran Civil War • Military-led government against communist group Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FNLF) • Coffee exports divided the powerful elite (pro-government) and the impoverished minority (pro-communism) • Why do you think there was political division among the people? • 12 years of extreme violence (1979-1991) • Human Rights Violations by the US backed military • Child Soldiers • Death Squads • Terrorization of citizens • UN treaty created peace and a ceasefire in June 1991
Nicaraguan Revolution • Nicaragua run by the Somoza family from 1936-1979 • Opposition to the dictatorship in Nicaragua in the 1970s • 1978-1979 violently ousted the dictator which led to the Contra Wars • 1000s of lives lost • FSLN (leftist group ) against Contras (rightist counter-revolutionary group • FSLN received aid from the Soviet Union while the Contras received aid from the US • Fierce International Debate • Tella Accord – Peace Treaty that lead to demobilization of troops and a democratic election
Venezuela • Opposing the socialist government of President NicolásMaduro • What is socialism? • High inflation • High crime rates • Scarcities of basic goods • Repression of opponents • Demonstrations against the government have been met with violent and sometimes deadly force • Mass Arrests • Human Rights Violations?
Rainforest Deforestation Scenarios • Read each of the scenarios on the Rainforest Worksheet. • Answer the scenarios in 3 complete sentences • The write a one paragraph response to the following question: • What are the cultural and economic effects of deforestation? • https://rainforestrescue.sky.com/assets/assets/documents/2013/01/ILAW_work_sheets.pdf