14.2 Latin American MEXICO 1950s & 1960s = many Mexicans made gains in real wages. 1968 university students in Mexico City protested one-party rule. Police opened fire Institutional Revolutionary Party(P.R.I.) dominated Mexican politics for decades.
White Board Write the 2 parties in the US?
Reforms. New political parties and more freedoms • 1970s, vast oil reserves discovered. • Govt. became dependent on oil revenues. • oil prices dropped in mid-1980s, Mexico unable to pay foreign debt. • Govt. forced to privatization(sale of govt.-owned companies to private firms.)
Leaders • Debt crisis and unemployment increased with P.R.I. In 2000, • Vicente Fox became the first president elected from (P.A.N.) in 90 years! • wealthy family, educated at Harvard, • conservativeP.A.N., pro-business, • *2006 P.A.N. Felipe Calderon won closest race in Mexican history. • He too is Harvard educated & “pro-U. S.” • Drug Violence, police corruption, inefficient government and widespread poverty continue
White Board What would you say is the biggest issue in Mexico and Why?
White Board Communist Questions Political Spectrum
CUBA • Left Wing Fidel Castro’s guerilla forces overthrew right wing dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959. • Many anti-Castro Cubans fled to U. S. • Castro-Soviet political and military support • 1960 the U. S. placed a trade embargoon Cuba • 1961, the U. S. broke off alldiplomatic relations. • 1961 president JFK and the C. I. A. supported the failed Bay of Pigs invasion.
White Boards What group of people left Cuba and why?
Cuba Wants Spread Communism Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 caused Castro to view the S. U. as an unreliable ally. Castro wanted to start Latin American leftist Revolutions Ernesto Che Guevara, an ally of Castro from Argentina, led an uprising inAngola & Bolivia and, but was killed in 1967.
Central America historical dependent upon single, cash-crop exports. huge gap between wealthy elite and poor peasants. Fear of communism, led U. S. to support Strict right wing regimes (eg. El Salvador, Nicaragua & Panama.)
El Salvador ruled by wealthy elite and military. army refused to accept results of free elections in 1972. Late 1970s through 1980s, civil war between leftist guerrillas vs. right wing Army Pres. Reagan- weapons and training to the Salvadorian army. Peace settlement was finally reached in 1992.
Discuss What is the goal of US intervention in Latin American Countries 1960-1990
Nicaragua- Wealthy & powerful Somoza family controlled 1937-79 Somozasused position to enrich family, rather than promote social programs for the masses. Guerillas group Sandinistas fought against the Government Sandanistas take power 1979 Sandanistas Leftist Gov created- US sends $ to help Contras(against Leftist Gov.) Fighting between Left govvs Contras -1988 peace talks
Panama became a nation in 1903 • broke away from Colombia, w. help from U. S. • U. S. able to build canal and gain political influence in Panama. • Military leader Manuel Noriega seized control in 1983, • with U. S. support. However drugdealings turned U. S. vs. him. • In 1989, Pres. George Bush (Senior) sent U. S. troops to Panama. Noriega was arrested and sent to prison infor drug trafficking.
RigobertaMenchu(Guatemla) worked to rescue her fellow Quiche Indians from murder squads of govt. Her father helped organize a peasant movement, but was killed by govt. troops. condemned by Guatemalan govt., so she fled to Mexico. Her autobiography brought world attention to plight of Guatemalan Indians. won the Nobel Peace Prize&used prize money to set up foundation to help Native Americans.
Immigration to U. S. (both legally and illegally.) Debate: Inexpensive labor, economic opportunities & humanitarian values vs.Bordersecurity, cost of social services & unfair competition for jobs. Neither Vincente Fox nor George W. Bush at 2004 Summit of the Americas (nor the U. S. Congress since then) have been able to reach a mutually agreed-upon immigration policy.
ARGENTINA 1943 Military Coup • Participated in Military coup of government • Juan Peron Was rewarded with high level appointments (secretary of Labor) • Liberal changes that helped the working class increased his support
White Board How is this position going to help Peron take power?
Terms as President • 1st Term-Became president 1946-1951 • Changed the constitution and regained power • Gained support of the Poor “Descamisados” • 2nd Term- 1951-1955 • Made increasingly liberal social changes • Economy was not improving • Forced into Exile by more conservative Military Coup
Power of his Wife Wife was a Evita Peron popular actress from working class origins With her support he was freed from failed coup 1945 She helped him rule and was loved by the masses
His Overthrow • Become more repressive • Working class suffered from unemployment wage freeze and inflation • Wealthy and middle class had high taxes and a falling Economy • Went Against Industrialist in trying to keep wages up • Allowed Foreign investment against what military wanted -1955 Military Coup forces him out of Power and into Exile -Returns 1973 to become president again but dies a year later
White Board Would you consider Peron a dictator? Why or why not?
Military takes power • 1976-1983 Military takes power and is very repressive • No other parties are allowed and they control news and speech. • 36,000 people who protested gov were killed • 1982 Argentina fights GB over Falkland Islands • Both countries claimed to own the Island • England won • Democracy returns in 1983
Chile • 1970 Leftist Leader Salvador Allende was elected President • Increase wages and nationalize corporations • Nationalization( government takes over a private company) • US owned companies angry about losing copper mines • Wealthy landowners angry when peasants demanded more rights.
New Ruler • 1973 Army took power killing Allende • Feared the country turning communist with his left wing ideas • Augusto Pinochet takes power and becomes a dictator
Discuss Why did the US fear this leader and what are other examples of the us fearing communist like leaders?
Pinochet's Rule Right wing rule of Pinochet limited freedom or speech and the press Copper industry stayed in Gov hands Government outlawed other political parties 1980’s thousands of people were executed and arrested for going against the gov. “Desaparecidos” those who disappeared Pinochet pushed out of power in 1989.