Latin America Physical Geography
Regions of Latin America • Mexico and Central America • Caribbean Islands • South America
Caribbean Islands Mexico & Central America South America
Match the Countries Haiti Cuba Jamaica Dominican Republic Mexico Trinidad & Tobago Belize Guatemala Honduras El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama
Guyana Match the Countries! Venezuela Suriname Colombia French Guiana Ecuador Brazil Bolivia Peru Paraguay Chile Uruguay Argentina
Landforms/Bodies of Water • Mountains: • Sierra Madre Occidental/Oriental (Mexico) • Andes (South America) • Rivers: • Amazon (South America) • Orinoco (Venezuela) • Parana (South America) • Islands: • Lesser Antilles (Small Islands) • Greater Antilles (Large Islands) Also throughout South America, you will find the Pampas (a plains area) and Patagonia (plateau)
Caribbean Islands: Greater vs. Lesser Antilles • Greater Antilles: • Larger islands in the Caribbean • Ex: Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico • Lesser Antilles: • Smaller of the Caribbean islands • All islands SOUTHEAST of Puerto Rico
Pampas and Patagonia • Pampas: • Plains found in parts of Argentina and Uruguay • Very rich soil is found here • Main resources=cattle and wheat grain • Patagonia: • Plateau area found in Argentina and Chile
Amazon River • Flows about 4,000 miles from west to east • Beginsin the Andes Mountains and empties into the Atlantic Ocean • Fed by over 1,000 tributaries • Carries more water to the ocean than any other river in the world
Climate and Vegetation • Vegetation: • *Rain Forests (Amazon) • Desert (Argentina) • Grassland
Resources • Most of the region is wealthy in terms of mineral resources (gold, silver, iron, copper, tin, lead, etc.) • Many Energy resources are also found (oil, coal, natural gas, etc.) • Oil Reserves in Mexico • Central American countries are POOR in terms of resources • Numerous resources in South America • Amongst the world’s leaders in mining raw materials
Human-Environment Interaction • Slash-and-Burn: • Old method still used by today’s farmers • Cut trees/brush and burn debris to clear fields • Exhausts the soil • Terraced Farming • Growing crops on hillsides • Urbanization: • Push and Pull Factors • Encouraged cities to grow rapidly
Tourism • Pros: • Brings in money • Creates jobs • Cons: • Congestion • Pollution • Disrupts unsettled lands
Information • http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ms_wcg_survey/page_build.htm?id=resources/jsp/ani_geo/ani_geo_3
Latin American Vocabulary! • Andes Mountains 10. NAFTA • Llanos • Cerrado • Pampas 11. Oligarchy • Patagonia 12. Carnival • Slash-and-Burn 13. Samba • Tenochtitlan • Mestizo • Maquiladoras
Latin America Human Geography
Ethnic Diversity • Latin America is made up of many different groups of people: natives, Europeans, blacks, and mixed peoples • Mestizos = people of mixed Native American and European descent • Mulattos = people of mixed African and European descent
Language • Most regions have adopted the language of the people who colonized them. • Dialects = forms of a language peculiar to a particular place or group
Population Density ~a closer look at Mexico and Mexico City~ • ~97.5 million people live in Mexico • It is the most populated Spanish-speaking nation in the world. • Mexico City is ranked the 11th most populated city in the world • One of the most polluted cities in the world.
Religion • All of the early Meso-American civilizations (Maya, Aztec, and Inca) were POLYTHEISITIC • Worship gods such as the maize/corn god, sun god, etc.
The Maya • Central America (present-day Guatemala) • Tikal – city in modern Guatemala • Pyramid shaped temples
The Maya … continued… • Skilled in mathematics • Developed concept of zero • Calendar – based on orbit of the Earth & Sun (365 ¼ day calendar) • Invented Game that is a cross between basketball & soccer Pictures of Ballcourts
Aztecs • Valley of Mexico • Capital of Tenochtitlan on an island in the middle of a lake (modern day Mexico City is built on top) • Advanced farming • Chinampas – floating artificial islands built on large rafts covered with mud.
Chinampasonline diagram • http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ms_wcg_survey/page_build.htm?id=resources/jsp/ani_geo/ani_geo_3
The Aztecs … continued… • Complex political system with an emperor • Worshipped many gods & goddesses ceremonies with prisoner sacrifices • Hernan Cortes – conquistador from Spain, conquered the Aztecs
The Incas • People of the Andes Mountains • Capital is Cuzco in Peru • Political system with an emperor • Terrace farming – cut into the side of mountains • Domesticated the alpaca & llama
The Incas … continued … • Quipu= a rope with knotted cords of various lengths and colors, used to keep records and send messages • Machu Picchu – “Lost city of the Inca” Machu Picchu – Incan city in the Andes mountains - discovered in 1911 untouched!!
Religion • Human Sacrifice • Purpose = to celebrate accession of king or stop crisis • Victims = child (most beautiful or royalty) • How • Option A: child = given alcohol… bound with rope, hit in head… walled inside stone structure • Option B: child placed on sacrifice table… shaman cuts artery in thigh… bleed to death
The Incas … continued … • Taken over by a Conquistador or “Spanish conqueror” • Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca people
Legacy of colonialism • When colonies, Latin America was ruled by kings and queens of Europe.
All became independent by the mid to late 1800s -Ruled by a few leaders, called an oligarchy. Did not always protect people’s basic rights (freedom of speech, and press)
During the 20th century some Latin American countries were ruled by a military dictator, a caudillo.(kaw-deel-yoh) Ex. Juan Peron of Argentina, whose wife Evita Peron was famous for being loved by the people. When the government could not control the people, sometimes the military took over, a junta, and was ruled by generals.
Today all the countries of Latin America except Cuba are some type of democracy. CUBA = Communist The goals of Latin America today are to end poverty, pollution, & illiteracy Creating Stable Governments
Art ~ Diego Rivera ~ • Used art to educate • Created huge muralscombing modern forms with traditional designs to present the daily life and history of the country. • Most famous mural is in Detroit, Michigan
Art~ Frida Kahlo ~ • Mexican artist whose tormented paintings gave her great fame and changed the art world • Featured on the cover of Vogue magazine • 2002 movie staring Salma Hayek about her life.
Literature • Modernism = 1800s literary movement, in which writers and poets focused on artistic expression for its own sake. • Gabriela Mistral – writer from Chile • Gabriel Garcia Marquez – writer from Colombia • A movie is being made of his book “Love in a time of Cholera” • Both have won a Nobel Prize for Literature.
Calypso – from Trinidad (combines musical styles of Africa, Spain and the Caribbean) Reggae – Jamaica, 1960’s – deals with social problems and religion Bob Marley Music
Baseball • Very POPULAR In Latin American countries • MANY MLB players come from various countries throughout this region • Examples: • David Ortiz (Dominican Republic) • Pedro Martinez • Rafael Furcal • Javy Lopez (Puerto Rico) • Manny Acosta (Panama) • Jorge Campillo (Mexico) • Yunel Escobar (Cuba)
Leisure Time & Celebrations • Futbol (soccer) very popular and a national sport in many countries • Jai alai (HY-LY) – a traditional favorite in Mexico and Cuba, fast paced game like racquetball • Brazil has won the World Cup of Soccer 5 times!!
Leisure Time & Celebrations … continued … • Capoeira – martial arts of Brazil • Samba – Brazilian Dance
Leisure Time & Celebrations … continued … • Carnival – festival celebrated just before the beginning of Lent, the Christian holy season that comes before Easter – the biggest Carnival is held each year in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil