Latin America Colonization & Independence
Aztec Empire Recap • 1200s • Tribe of hunters/farmers who migrated to southern Mexico. • Major accomplishments • Mathematical & Calendar systems to maintain/organize their empire • Farming system was very efficient - Chinampas
Chinampa is a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertilearable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico.
Aztec Empire Recap • 1521 • Cortes defeats Montezuma (emperor) and the Aztecs • Why were the Spanish able to defeat the Aztecs so easily? • Superior weapons, European diseases, Aztec enemies helped the Spanish
Inca Empire Recap • 1200 AD • Inca settle along the Pacific Coast of S. America • Accomplishments include: roads, terracing, aqueducts
Inca Empire Recap • 1533 AD • Francisco Pizarro defeats the Atahualpa & the Inca • Forces the Inca to work on the encomiendas • Spanish mission system • Natives die from starvation, European disease, overwork
In the encomienda, the crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. In theory, the receiver of the grant was to protect the natives from warring tribes and to instruct them in the Spanish language and in the Catholic faith: in return they could extract tribute from the natives in the form of labor, gold or other products. In practice, the difference between encomienda and slavery could be minimal. Natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and death if they resisted.
Colonial Influence • European Colonization • Spain wealthy enough to pay for exploration • Gold, God, Glory
1494 AD • Treaty of Tordesillassigned • Signed between Spain and Portugal • Set the Line of Demarcation • Imaginary line at 50 degrees longitude. • Spain claimed land west of the line • Portugal claimed land east of the line • This is why Brazil speaks Portuguese Video clip
How was Latin America divided? • Spain divided the territory into 2 provinces • New Spain (Mexico/Central America) • Capital was Mexico City - Built on top of the ruins of Tenochtitlan. • Peru (South America) • Capital was Lima • Caribbean Islands were also colonized primarily by Spain . . . • The Netherlands (Dutch), France, England, and Denmark also colonized the Caribbean. • Came in search of wealth and natural resources
Was there a specific social structure in New Spain & Peru? • Peninsulares • Spanish colonists directly from Spain • Criollos • Spanish colonists born in the colony whose parents were born in Spain • Mestizos • People of Native American and Spanish descent • Native Americans • Slaves didn’t even make it on the list Peninsulares Criollos Mestizos Native Americans
Role of Native Americans • Native Americans were captured and forced into slavery on large plantations • Haciendas = large ranches or plantations • This was called the encomienda system. • Encomienda is a system of forced labor. • Natives worked in return for protection.
Native Americans were not good slaves • They knew the land and found escape relatively easy • However, many died from starvation, overwork & diseases.
Columbian Exchange • 1500’s AD • Columbian exchange took place between the Americas and Europe. • Named after Christopher Columbus • Describes the exchange of crops, goods, animals and diseases between Europe and its colonies. • Goods taken to Europe • Potatoes, beans, maize (corn), squash, pumpkins, tomatoes, peppers and chocolate
Columbian Exchange • Goods taken to the Americas • Sugar cane, wheat, barley • Sheep, goats, pigs, cattle and horses • Horses had a great impact on the natives, especially how they conducted war • Negative impact in the Americas = European disease • Measles, influenza and smallpox
Europe Manufactured Goods Manufactured Goods Rum, Tobacco, Molasses & Cotton Slaves & Ivory Africa West Indies Slaves & Gold Rum, Tobacco & Gunpowder Triangular Trade Video clip “Middle Passage” “The Americas”
Impact of Columbian Exchange • Decline of indigenous populations • Natives lacked immunity to European diseases • Between 1492 and 1650, 80% of Native Americans died from European diseases. • Agricultural Change • New foods brought to Europe and Latin America • Introduction of the horse • Brought from Europe • Used for transportation and labor • Helped Native Americans hunt • Main form of transportation until the early 20th century
Slave Trade 1510 AD • First African slaves brought to the Caribbean & South America • Used to work on the sugar plantations and mine silver – required a HUGE & CHEAP workforce • Europeans introduced sugar cane to the West Indies. They then sent it back to Europe to be used as a popular sweetener.
Coffee was also introduced as a popular crop that required additional workers. • The Brazilian coffee industry benefited greatly from the introduction of slavery.
Slave Trade • Natives were used as slaves first. • Many natives died from diseases such as the measles, malaria, and small pox. (50-75%) • They also escaped easily. . . WHY?
Slave Trade • Europeans replaced the native slaves (who had died) with Africans as slaves over time. • WHY??? • Highly skilled farmers and metal workers • Could handle the hot climate • Could not escape as easily • More immune to disease • African slaves also experienced horrible conditions similar to those of the natives.
Slave Trade • African slavery was extremely important in the development of South America & the Caribbean for the next 300 years. • As the industries that required slaves grew . . . So did the number of slaves. • Slaves were required in order to help the plantations be successful. • Brazil imported more slaves than any other country in the world. • In the 1700’s, sugarcane production in Jamaica and modern Haiti surpassed Brazil. • The Caribbean islands became VERY important to their colonial powers. WHY?
Slave Trade • 9 out of 10 inhabitants in the Caribbean were slaves • As the colonies gained their independence, so did the slaves. • Most Caribbean people today are descendants from African slaves. • This continues to blend the ethnic groups within Latin America.
What was the Spanish Mission system? • System for Spain to defend its empire’s borders against other empires, such as Portugal, France, and Britain.
Under this system . . . • Priests were to manage the haciendas and convert natives to Christianity. • Spread of the Spanish language and culture throughout Latin America. • Some natives converted quickly . . . Others rebelled against the Spanish. • Economically, the mission system was only successful in Mexico, but not in other parts of Latin America.
Impact of Colonization TODAY • People and culture of Latin America are a blend of native and European customs. • Language • Major factor that links all the countries together and makes it a cultural region. • Spanish is the predominate language . . . WHY? • Because most of the countries were established by Spain • Brazil speaks Portuguese . . . WHY? • Some indigenous languages still exist in isolated areas
How do you think early setters and natives communicated with each other? • Ethnic Groups – started to blend together. • Mestizos – Native American and European • Mulattos – Africans and Europeans • Religion • Major religion is Catholicism – brought by the Europeans • Replaced the practice of idol worship and human sacrifice
Independence Movements Haiti, Mexico & South America
What world events influenced the Latin American independence movements? • Late 1700’s - American Revolution & French Revolution • Early 1800’s - Colonists in Latin America were tired of watching Spain and Portugal gain riches at their expense.
Became disgruntled & saw others in other countries rebel against monarchs and win! • Led by criollos, who were wealthy but had no political power because they had not been born in Spain
Caribbean Independence Movement - Haiti • Haiti was a French colony known as St. Domingue • The French brought African slaves to work on the HUGE sugar cane and coffee plantations • 1789 – Slaves were given freedom after the French Revolution . . . HOWEVER , in 1791 they changed their minds. • How would this make you feel?
In 1791, Haiti became the only country in the Americas to have a successful slave revolt – thousands of slaves • Tired of working long hours under terrible conditions. • Killed thousands of colonists and burned the land. • Toussaint L’Ouverture helped to banish slavery on the island. He was a former slave . . . But educated. • 1794 – the slaves were freed . . . But now had to fight the Spanish and British who were trying to take over the island.
1799- Toussaint controlled the country and named himself dictator for life. • Began to rebuild the country . . . Set up a constitution, guaranteed decent wages, housing and medical care for the people.
French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was insulted by Toussaints’s declaration that he was dictator for life . . . He sent the army to retake the colony. • Toussaint was captured and died in a French prison. • 1803 – French gave up the island because many soldiers died from yellow fever • 1804 – Gained their complete independence!
Haiti was the first Latin American country to break free from Imperialism. • However, they have lived under harsh dictators and are the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere.
Mexican Independence Movement • 1521-1810 • Spanish ruled Mexico • Early 1800’s • Many Mexican leaders began to call for independence from Spain
Miguel Hidalgo: • A criollo priest (Catholic) • Why would the criollos be most likely to lead the revolution? • Led revolution movement in Mexico
Hidalgo believed in social reform – change for the better in society • Slaves should be freed • Land held by Spain should be returned to Mexican farmers • Spain should stop taxing Mexican citizens so heavily
1808 – France invaded Spain . . . Spain’s government was in distress • Father Hidalgo seized the moment!!! • Father Hidalgo gave a speech on September 16, 1810 known as the Grito de Dolores (“Cry of Dolores”)
(Mexico’s independence day is celebrated on the anniversary of this speech!) • He urged the Mexican people to rebel against Spanish rule • Led a small group of protestors to Mexico City . . . By the time they arrived, the group had grown to 2,000 people. But they were NO match for the weapons of the government soldiers.
Hildalgo formed an army of 80,000 but lost more battles than he wonHe was captured and executed in 1811 for treason.Rebels continued fighting though – Hidalgo is known as the “Father of Mexican Independence”.1821 – The last of the Spanish troops left Mexico.
Spanish Control in S. America • Spain • Ruled over most of S. America for 300 years • Spain grew enormously wealthy • Colonists wanted to share in the political and economic wealth – decided to fight for independence
South American Independence *HH • 1804 : Simon Bolivar – joins the independence movement • Venezuelan criollo • Traveled to Spain and was convinced that Venezuela should be free from Spain’s control.
1810 • Bolivar fought for 15 years to liberate many countries in S. America. • Became president of the republic of Gran Colombia • Modern Day – Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador • Liberated Peru and Bolivia . . . Added them to his republic.
Nicknamed El Libertador • Also nicknamed the “George Washington of S. America” because of his battle to free much of S. America from Spanish control. • Bolivia was named after him. • He died in 1830 from tuberculosis.
Spanish Colonies in South America • 1808 – 1830 AD • Most countries gain their independence • 1811 = Paraguay • 1816 = Argentina • 1818 = Chile • 1819 = Colombia • 1822 = Ecuador • 1824 = Peru • 1825 = Uruguay • 1830 = Venezuela
Portuguese Colony in S. America • Portugal • Ruled over most of South America for 300 years • 1822 AD • Brazil gained its Independence without a major fight.