The Cold War 1945-1990US vs. Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsDemocracy vs. CommunismCapitalism vs. Socialism
Chapter 29: US and Europe the Cold War The United States and the Soviet Union vie for superiority, and both countries extend their control over other nations.
Objectives • Understand how two sides faced off in Europe during the Cold War. • Learn how nuclear weapons threatened the world. • Understand how the Cold War spread globally. • Compare and contrast the Soviet Union and the United States in the Cold War.
Terms and People • superpowers – nations stronger than other powerful nations • anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs) – missiles that can shoot down other missiles from hostile countries • Ronald Reagan – the president of the United States from 1980 to 1988 • détente – the relaxation of Cold War tensions
Fidel Castro – leader of an armed rebellion in Cuba, who took power there in 1959 and allied with the Soviet Union John F. Kennedy– the president of the United States from 1961 to 1963 ideology– a system of values and beliefs Terms and People (continued)
Terms and People (continued) • Nikita Khrushchev– the leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin’s death in 1953, who called for “peaceful coexistence” with the West • Leonid Brezhnev– the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1960s until 1982; reinstated the policy of imprisoning critics • containment – the policy of trying to keep communism within its existing boundaries and preventing further expansion
What were the military and political consequences of the Cold War in the Soviet Union, Europe, and the United States? After World War II ended, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers. They engaged in a Cold War that involved most of the world for the next 40 years.
After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union faced off along the Iron Curtain. The Soviet Union led the Warsaw Pact in communist Eastern Europe. The United States led the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in democratic Western Europe. Both sides relied on European alliances: the United States with the West and the Soviet Union with the East.
The city of Berlin in Germany became a focus of the Cold War. • West Berlin was democratic and East Berlin was communist. • East Germans fled into West Berlin in droves before East Germany built a wall in 1961. • The barrier of concrete and barbed wire became a symbol of the Cold War.
In 1953, 50,000 workers in East Berlin unsuccessfully stood up to the Soviet Army. • Hungary tried to pull out of the Warsaw Pact in 1956. Soviet tanks overcame Hungarian freedom fighters. • The leader of Czechoslovakia introduced limited democracy in 1968, but Warsaw Pact troops ended the effort. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviet Union crushed attempted revolts in Eastern Europe.
The Soviet Union and the United States engaged in a deadly arms race. Both sides had nuclear weapons by 1949 and hydrogen bombs by 1953. Each side hoped that the threat of “mutually assured destruction” would deter the other from launching its weapons. The arms race fed a worldwide fear of nuclear doom.
Despite Cold War tension, the two sides did meet to discuss limiting nuclear weapons. One agreement limited anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs). In the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan supported a “Star Wars” missile defense program.
Détente ended in 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. President Richard Nixon visited the Soviet Union and communist China. An era of détente occurred during the 1970s due to the arms control agreements.
Around the world, the two superpowers confronted each other indirectly by supporting opposite sides in local conflicts.
Cuba became a communist nation in the 1950s. • Fidel Castro led a revolt against the corrupt dictator there in the 1950s. • Castro took power in 1959, allied with the Soviet Union, and nationalized businesses. • U.S. President John F. Kennedy wanted to bring down the communist regime and supported the Bay of Pigs Invasion, which failed.
The Soviet Union sent nuclear missiles to Cuba in 1962, sparking the Cuban missile crisis. President Kennedy blockaded Soviet ships and demanded that the Soviets remove the missiles. As the threat of nuclear war loomed, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed and the crisis was over.
The Cold War was really a struggle between two different economic and political systems.
The United States worked to keep communism within its existing boundaries. • It supported any government facing communist invasion. During the Cold War, the United States pursued a policy of containment.
Life in the United States during the Cold War was marked by a fear of both nuclear fallout and communism within. • Many people built bomb shelters in their yards. • Public schools conducted air-raid drills. • Americans worried there were communists in the United States. This “red scare” led to many false accusations and ruined lives.
The Red Guards: China’s Teenage Police Force Between 1966 and 1976, students in China’s Red Guard waged a Cultural Revolution on teachers and professionals that left a million people dead and the country in chaos.
Red Guards holding Mao’s “Little Red Book” of his sayings during the cultural revolution.
Cold War: Superpowers Face Off The opposing economic and political philosophies of the United States and the Soviet Union lead to global competition.
Allies Become Enemies • Yalta Conference: A Postwar Plan • In February 1945, British, American, and Soviet leaders meet at Yalta • They agree to divide Germany into zones of occupation when WWI ends • Soviet leader Stalin agrees to allow free elections in Eastern Europe
Allies Become Enemies • Creation of the United Nations • June 1945, 50 nations form the United Nations—an international organization • All members are represented in the General Assembly; 11 nations are on the Security Council • Five permanent members have Security Council veto power
Allies Become Enemies • Differing U.S. and Soviet Goals • U.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII ends • U.S. is world’s richest and most powerful country after WWII because of consumer spending. • Soviets recovering from high war casualties and had many destroyed cities
Eastern Europe’s Iron Curtain • Soviets Build a Buffer • Soviets control Eastern European countries after World War II to protect against attack. • The US was Alarmed by soviet control of Eastern Europe because the US was worried about the spread of communism • Stalin installs Communist governments in several countries • Truman urges free elections; Stalin refuses to allow free elections • In 1946, Stalin says capitalism and communism cannot co-exist
Eastern Europe’s Iron Curtain • An Iron Curtain Divides East and West • Germany is divided; East Germany is Communist, West Germany democratic • Iron Curtain—Winston Churchill’s name for the division of Europe • Russia receives the largest share of German reparations after WWII
The nations on the eastern side of the “Iron Curtain” were known as the Eastern Bloc
Preserved section of the border between East Germany and West Germany called the "Little Berlin Wall" at Mödlareuth
United States Tries to Contain Soviets • Containment • Containment—U.S. plan to stop the spread of communism • The Truman Doctrine • Truman Doctrine—U.S. supports countries that reject communism • Congress approves Truman’s request for Hundreds of millions in aid to Greece and Turkey
United States Tries to Contain Soviets • The Marshall Plan • Much of Western Europe lay in ruins after World War II • Marshall Plan—U.S. program of assisting Western European countries with massive economic aid let Western Europe make a rapid recovery • Congress approves plan after Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia
United States Tries to Contain Soviets • The Berlin Airlift • In 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forces from West Germany • Their former occupation zones form one country • Soviets oppose this, stop land, rail, and water traffic into West Berlin; to force the West to leave Berlin • West Berlin, located in Soviet occupation zone, faces starvation • U.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until the blockade ends
The Cold War Divides the World • The Cold War • Cold-War—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union using means short of war • Superpowers Form Rival Alliances • In 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countries form NATO • NATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is a defensive military alliance • In 1955, Soviets and Eastern nations sign the Warsaw Pact alliance • In 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall to separate East and West Berlin
NATO Warsaw Pact and Non-aligned nations
Warsaw Pact Nations • Note: Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia is forced out of the Warsaw Pact in 1948
The Cold War Divides the WorldEffect of the Arms Race • The Threat of Nuclear War • Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb in 1949 • U.S. and Soviet Union both develop the more powerful hydrogen bomb • Brinkmanship—policy of willingness to go to the edge of war • Increasing tensions lead to military buildup by U.S. and the Soviets