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Preparing the Body for Sport

Preparing the Body for Sport. Frances Campbell Exercise Physiologist . Science and Sport. Physiology Body Psychology Mind Biomechanics Internal and External Forces. Physiologists. Nutrition Fitness Testing Research Supplements Injury Prevention. SPORTS NUTRITION.

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Preparing the Body for Sport

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  1. Preparing the Body for Sport Frances Campbell Exercise Physiologist

  2. Science and Sport • Physiology • Body • Psychology • Mind • Biomechanics • Internal and External Forces

  3. Physiologists • Nutrition • Fitness Testing • Research • Supplements • Injury Prevention


  5. "The amount, composition and timing of food intake can profoundly affect sports performance" IOC Consensus Conference on Nutrition and Sports Performance

  6. Around the world, athletes and coaches recognise that nutrition plays a major role in achieving success in sport. • The benefits of eating well include: • Optimal gains from the training program • Enhanced recovery between workouts and events • Achievement and maintenance of an ideal body weight and physique • A reduced risk of injury and illness • Confidence in being well-prepared to face competition • Consistency in achieving high level competition performances

  7. UK Dietary intake Values refer to % of energy intake

  8. Healthy diet

  9. Optimum diet for sport

  10. Why is an athletes diet different? • Energy • Increased energy demands from increased activity • Maintenance of energy balance must be assessed • Weight loss • Increased fluid intake

  11. Food for Energy Energy from the diet is stored as body fat or glycogen (carbohydrate in muscles and liver) and can be broken down to provide energy. Glycogen is the main source of energy during short bursts of activity and at the start of exercise. There is only a small store of glycogen in the body, and as exercise continues the store becomes depleted and the body starts to use some fat to provide energy. Most people have quite a large store of body fat. People who are fitter use up their store of glycogen more slowly, and tend to use their stores of body fat for fuel more readily.

  12. Preferred fuel for aerobic and anaerobic energy systems Delay fatigue in exercise lasting longer than 60 minutes Essential role in recovery Strength and power athletes require approximately 5-7gms/Kg body weight for hard training Endurance athletes 7-10gms/Kg body weight Carbohydrates to fuel your training!

  13. Carbohydrate • Athletic performance limited by CHO availability • High intensity + long duration sports • High CHO diets maximize glycogen stores +  performance • Requirements sugar/starch, liquid/solid dependent on: • Timing + type of physical activity


  15. gut blood liver glucose glycogen 100 g muscle glycogen 300 g Preparing for Sport

  16. Typical training day for an elite boxer • Running/Cardio • 30-60mins • REST/MEAL • Sparring/Boxing • 3min rounds 30sec rest 10-15 rounds • REST/MEAL • Weight Training • 2 muscle groups pre session 4 sets of 20 reps per muscle group 180 reps per gym session

  17. What about protein? The body uses protein from the diet for growth and repair of tissues – which is of great importance if you suffer from strain/injury during training. Does it help build muscles and aid recovery? Protein can help build muscle in resistance sports such as weight lifting but be warned excess protein is turned into adipose tissue (fat!)

  18. Protein • Large Organic compounds made of amino acids • Complex structure difficult to break down • The body rarely uses protein as a source of fuel • Protein often used as a food supplement to aid muscle growth • Proteins are an extremely important macromolecule

  19. Protein

  20. Fat

  21. Fat • Can be liquid or solid depending on structure • Different kinds of fats. • Saturated • Unsaturated • Fatty acids (Omega 3,6,9) • NOT ALL FATS ARE BAD – all about balance

  22. Another approach to having “extra” glycogen – train your body to use less The alternative to maximizing the availability of CHO is to conserve CHO by maximizing the capacity to oxidize fat. The essential theory underlying this strategy is the reciprocal relationship between FAT and CHO in terms of providing energy for exercise. Glycogen Triglyceride Glucose Free Fatty Acid Pyruvate Acetyl-CoA Fatty Acyl CoA TCA (Krebs) cycle

  23. Exercise and Supplements • Diet is important for all athletes • Due to lifestyle and training programmes and energy demands its not always possible to gain requirement from foods • Many athletes use food supplements

  24. Types of Supplements • Carbohydrate shake, and bars • Protein shakes, and bars • Caffeine supplements • Energy drinks • Vitamin supplements • Iron + calcium supplements

  25. Vitamin supplements If you have a healthy balanced diet then you should not need to use vitamin supplements. However, if you do take one pick a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement providing no more than 100% RDA (recommended daily allowance)

  26. BUT … at what point does the use of supplements become cheating ???

  27. Athletic substance abuse “The International Olympic Committee (IOC) published its first list of banned doping classes in 1967, in which it listed narcotic analgesics, sympathomimetic amines, psychomotor stimulants, and miscellaneous central nervous system stimulants. Since that time the list has evolved and grown, with the incorporation of anabolic steroids in 1974, blockers and diuretics in 1985, and peptide hormones in 1989”.

  28. Responsibility of athletes • It is the responsibility of the athlete to understand their rights and responsibilities and to be aware of what they are putting in their body, despite whether there was an intention to cheat or not • Athletes should seek advice if they have any questions or doubts about their responsibility, medication or treatment. • It's what's inside that counts

  29. Caffeine’s Ergogenic Effect • Increased mental alertness/concentration central nervous system stimulant • Elevated mood/ decreased fatigue • Enhanced catecholamine release • Improved muscular strength Effect Depends on: • Individual caffeine status • Individual variability • Caffeine dosage and administration • Illegal (>12ug/ml) • approx.. 5-6 cups of strong coffee or 4 vivarin for a 150 pound person consumed 2-3 hours before performance

  30. Alcohol • Alcohol effects all cells in the body. • Alcohol (ethyl alcohol, ethanol) is a drug, it can also be classified as an energy source as it provides energy, about 7 kcal per gram. • “uneconomical” - more oxygen needed to metabolize a gram of alcohol than a gram of carbohydrates or fat • The effects of alcohol are dependant on the blood alcohol concentration.

  31. Alcohol • Alcohol may influence both psychological and physiological processes related to physical performance. • Psychologically, alcohol may benefit performance by increasing self-confidence, decreasing sensitivity to pain, or removing psychological barriers to performance. • However, the most prevalent use of alcohol in sports competition is related to its ability to reduce excess anxiety.

  32. Anabolic Steroids • Testosterone (must be injected or it will be destroyed by digestive enzymes) • Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) • synthetic drugs designed to mimic the effects of testosterone; taken orally or injected • Human Growth Hormone (anabolic) • used like steroids to increase muscle mass • Beta Adrenergic Agents (Clenbuterol)

  33. Athlete substance abuse • IOC list of banned substances Amphetamines Reduce fatigue, improve alertness, improve reaction time, increase aggression and competitiveness. May be used outside of competition to improve training. Contained within recreational drugs. Release neurotransmitters such as noradrenalin, dopamine, and serotonin Found in over the counter medicines such as cold remedies and decongestants.

  34. Athlete substance abuse • β agonists • Potent bronchodilators and may, therefore,improve performance in aerobic exercise • Commonly found in asthma inhalers • Allowed for medical reasons • 6% of athletes at the 2000 Sydney Olympics declared the use of β agonists.

  35. Athlete substance abuse • Anabolic androgenic steroids • Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are used to improve strength by increasing lean body mass, decreasing body fat, prolonging training by enhancing recovery time, and increasing aggressiveness and energy cardiovascular, cosmetic, hepatic, infections, reproductive, and psychiatric.

  36. Other inhibiting factors • Sleep • Sleep is important for the body and the brain, helps recovery and healing from the stress of exercise. • Stress • Emotional stress effects performance be reducing commitment and concentration levels particularly important in sports with high skill factors. • Injuries • Injuries reduce training intensities and effect performance. Injuries can be a sign of over training or incorrect diet.

  37. Questions

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