The Effect of Artificial Sugar and Raw Sugar on the Daphnia’s Heartbeat Katie Clarke Nov. 7 2006
Purpose • To see how the daphnia’s heartbeat is affected by the artificial sugar and the raw sugar.
Background- Daphnia • Over 150 species • Males- 2 millimeters • Females- 3-5 millimeters • Diet of algae
Background- Artificial Sugar (Aspartame) • Aspartic Acid • 40% • an excitotoxin • Can pass through the blood brain barrier
Background- Aspartame • Phenylalanine • 50% • 4% is in protein we eat
Background- Aspartame • Methyl Ester • 10% • Wood Alcohol • Breaks down into formaldehyde
Background- Raw Sugar • Not processed • From crushed sugar canes • Thin coating of molasses
Hypothesis • If the daphnia is exposed to artificial sugar containing aspartame the daphnia’s heartbeat will be higher than it would be with raw sugar.
Variables • Dependant Variable- Daphnia’s heartbeat • Independent Variable- Artificial sugar and Raw sugar
Control • Control- Daphnia’s heartbeats with water
Constants • Constants- The daphnia, the amount of raw sugar used, the amount of artificial sugar used, and the time each daphnia was watched.
2 Cultures of Daphnia Magna 1 Teaspoon 1 Microscope 1 Slide Artificial Sugar “Equal” Raw Sugar “Sugar in the Raw” 3 Eyedroppers 2 Cups of water 1 Watch Materials
Conclusion • To see how the daphnia’s heartbeat is affected by the artificial sugar and the raw sugar. • The Hypothesis was accepted • Possible because of the excitotoxin • Aspartame affects the brain more than the heart.
Used in Real Life • To learn more about what we eat.
Recommendations • Learn more about how it affects the heart • Make the project last longer
Acknowledge • My parents • J.T. and Cori • Mrs. Peffley