Overview • There are basically four levels of sources one can find in the research progress. • While they don’t necessarily correlate directly with the 4 levels of analysis (Scientific, Rhetorical, etc.), there is an approximate correlation.
Scholarly • concerned with academic study • exhibiting the methods / attitudes of a scholar • Substantive News/General Interest • solid base; substantive. • Popular • Reflecting taste and intelligence of people at large. • Sensational • intending to arouse strong curiosity, interest or reaction.
SCHOLARLY • generally have a sober, serious look. • graphs and charts but few glossy pages or pictures. • always cite their sources in the form of footnotes or bibliographies. • written by a scholar or researcher in the field. • assumes some scholarly background on the part of the reader. • The main purpose is to report on original research or experimentation in order to make such information available to the scholarly world.
EXAMPLES OF SCHOLARLY JOURNALS • American Economic Review • JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association • Journal of Marriage and the Family • Modern Fiction Studies
SUBSTANTIVE NEWS / GENERAL INTEREST • attractive in appearance. • often heavily illustrated, generally with photographs. • sometimes cite sources. • written by a member of the editorial staff, a scholar or a free lance writer. • geared to any educated audience. • no specialty assumed, only interest and a certain level of intelligence. • generally commercially published. • The main purpose is to provide information to a broad audience of interested citizens.
EXAMPLES • Christian Science Monitor • Economist • National Geographic • New York Times • Scientific American • Vital Speeches of the Day
POPULAR • come in many formats, often slick and attractive in appearance. • Lots of graphics (photographs, drawings, etc.). • rarely, if ever, cite sources. • Information published in such journals is often second or third hand. • Articles are usually short, written in simple language and are designed to meet a minimal education level. • main purpose is to entertain the reader, to sell products (their own or their advertisers), and/or to promote a viewpoint.
EXAMPLES OF POPULAR PERIODICALS • Ebony • Parents • People Weekly • Readers Digest • Sports Illustrated • Time • Vogue
SENSATIONAL • The most varied category who’s only common trait is unapologetic unreliability. • language is elementary, frequently inflammatory or sensational. • assume a certain gullibility in their audience. • main purpose is to arouse curiosity, distract, incite schadenfreude and to cater to popular superstitions. • often do so with flashy headlines designed to astonish.
EXAMPLES OF SENSATIONAL PERIODICALS • Globe • National Examiner • Star • OK • Weekly World News • TMZ