What is cell specialization? • A less specialized cell (stem cell) becomes a specific cell. • Ex: nerve cell
What are the difference in stem cells? Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells An undifferentiated cell, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ that can renew itself and yield some or all of the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ Different than embryonic because it can only be a cell of that organ or tissue. • These are the stem cells found in the embryo just after fertilization occurs. • These stem cells undergo changes to become all the various cells in your body.
Practice • What kind of cell in the human body might have a ton of mitochondria in it? ___________________ • What cellular structures might the enzyme-producing cells in the pancreas contain a lot of? _____________________ *Hint: What is an enzyme?
How is the structure of each cell related to its function? Nerve cell Sperm cell Muscle cell Red blood cell
What causes cell differentiation? • All cells are controlled by ___?___ • For each specific cell a different section of DNA is turned on allowing it to be specific for its job.
Reflection • What if a mutation caused the sperm cell and the red blood cell to change shapes? How would this affect the cells ability to do their job? • What impact would this have on future cells they created?
How do cells communicate? • What process takes place as you burn yourself? • Nerve cell sends signals to muscle cells to move your hand away from the flame!
Sending and receiving signals • Hormones: Chemical signal released by cell to send a message • Receptor proteins: Proteins that receive chemical messages