The Direct Method 2013 Fall Semester- Week 4
Introduction • 1. Goal of instruction: leaning how to use another language to communicate • 2. The very basic rule: No translation is allowed. • 3. Meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids, with no recourse to the students’ native language
Experience (1) • 1. A big map of the USA was placed in the front of the classroom • 2. Students are called on one by one to read a sentence from the reading passage about the map • 3. The countries around the USA: ( North) Canada. (South)Mexico • 4. The Great Lakes, Rio Grande river • 5. The Atlantic Ocean, The Pacific Ocean
Experience (2) • 6. The Appalachian Mountains • 7. The Rocky Mountain • 8. Students ask question in target language: a mountain range (e.g.) • 9. The teacher draw to illustrate a mountain range • 10. Ask and answer questions in a full sentence
Experience (3) • 11. Invite students to ask and answer questions • 12. Insure that students’ pronunciation is correct • 13. Correct students’ word usage when asking questions • 14. Practice the usage of preposition • 15. Fill-in-the-blanks exercise • 16. Dictation the geography of the United States
Thinking about the experience(1) • Principles: • 1. Reading in the target language should be taught from the beginning of language instruction; however, the reading skill will be developed through practice with speaking. Language is primarily speech. Culture consists of more than the fine arts (e.g. the students study geography and cultural attitudes). • 2. Objects (e.g. realia or pictures) present in the immediate classroom environment should be used to help students understand the meaning. • 3. The native language should not be used in the classroom.
Thinking about the experience (2) • 4. The teacher should demonstrate, not explain or translate. It is desirable that students make a direct association between the target language and meaning. • 5. Students should learn to think in the target language as soon as possible. Vocabulary is acquired more naturally if students use it in full sentences, rather than memorizing word lists. • 6. The purpose of language learning is communication (therefore students need to learn how to ask questions as well as answer them).
Thinking about the experience (3) • 7. Pronunciation should be worked on right from the beginning of language instruction. • 8. Self – correction facilitates language learning. • 9. Lessons should contain some conversational activity – some opportunity for students to use language in real contexts. Students should be encouraged to speak as much as possible. • 10. Grammar should be taught inductively. There may never be an explicit grammar rule given.
Thinking about the experience (4) • 11. Writing is an important skill, to be developed from the beginning of language instruction. • 12. The syllabus is based on situations or topics, not usually on linguistic structures. • 13. Learning another language also involves learning how speakers of that language live.
Review the principles and techniques • Answer the 10 questions based on the observation of techniques and principles • 8 techniques are reviewed: reading aloud, question and answer exercise, getting students to self-correct, conversation practice, Fill-in-the-blanks exercise, dictation, map drawing, paragraph writing
Conclusion and Activities • Conclusion: do you agree that the goal of target language instruction should be teach students how to communicate in the target language? • Activities: • 1. Check your understanding of the Direct Method? • 2. Apply What you have understood about the Direct Method.
Home work for week 4 • 1. e-portfolio: Life journal- selecting three important principles from the PPT • 2. e-portfolio: wiki- The Direct Method • 3. e-portfolio: picture- upload the picture of the USA map