Chapter 2.1: Spain’s Empires in the Americas (p. 36) Throughout the 1500s and the 1600s, the Spanish conquered Central and portions of North America
One American Story (PG. 36) • Who is this author of this story? • What is the main point of this story? • When did this story occur? • Where did this story occur? • Why is this story relevant in American history?
Terms You’ll Need to Know • Hernando Cortez • Conquistador • New Spain • Mestizo • Encomienda • Juan Ponce de Leon • New Mexico • Pope
Chapter 2 Main Ideas… • Throughout the 1500s and 1600s, the Spanish conquered Central and portions of North America • Spanish language, religion, and architecture continues to influence the Americas today.
The Spanish claim a New Empire • Columbus’ voyage to the new world inspired many Spaniards to follow suit and try to strike it rich—they were known as conquistadors. • Hernando Cortez was one such conquistador; he landed in the wealthy Aztec Empire (c. 1519) • He led a unit of 600 soldiers and various weaponry to overthrow the Aztec people. • After a tumultuous trek inward in what is today Mexico, Cortez and his men discovered the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlan—they were amazed at its grandeur.
The Aztecs had never seen such people before; wearing armor and riding horses They believed that Cortez was a god, the Aztec chief Montezuma offered him bullions of gold---not a good idea. By spring of 1520, the Aztecs rose up against the conquistadors; they initially drove them out, but disease took its toll, which allowed Cortez’s counterattack to be quite deadly.
While Tenochtitlan was still burning, Cortez laid out his new plans for this land…a New Spain, with the capital city being Mexico City. Within three years, Catholic churches were abundant, a university was established, and overall Spanish culture was ingrained.
Encomienda Spanish Pattern of Conquest Mestizo • Spanish men who settled in New Spain were known as peninsular; these men quite often married native women. Their offspring were a blend of Spanish & Native American= mestizo • The Spanish forced the natives to work against their will in plantations • This system of “slave-like” labor was known as the encomienda system. • The Spanish monarch abolished this system in 1542, and replaced the natives with African slaves
Encomienda System Mestizo
II. The Conquistadors Push North • From their home in New Spain, explorers pushed north into what is today America to expand their empire. • 1513: Easter Sunday (which the Spanish referred to as pascua florida…feast of flowers), explorer Juan Ponce de Leon discovered Florida; discouraged by the lack of gold, the Spanish decided to abandon the land • Upon the Spanish leaving, the French sailed down to what is today Jacksonville, FL. French pirates (known as buccaneers) looted Spanish ships filled with gold in the Gulf of Mexico. • This caused Spain to change it’s mind about FL, they sent Pedro Menendez de Aviles to drive the French out of FL. He was successful; he also established St. Augustine, which is the US’s oldest continually settled city.
Settling the Southwest: • In 1540, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led the first Spanish expedition into Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas…not much golf was discovered. • Spanish missionaries looked to this region as a place to spread Catholicism. Spanish priests organized the natives still living in this region into large communities known as congregaciones. • Spain’s northern holding was known as New Mexico; missionary priests built the capital city for this land called Santa Fe (Holy Faith)—a “royal road” was established to connect Santa Fe in the north to Mexico City in the south.
III. Resistance to the Spanish • The Spanish missionaries forced their culture onto the natives living in New Mexico---the natives resisted and eventually rebelled against the their attempts. • In assimilating the natives to their new Spanish culture, they smashed and destroyed any of their old religious icons that were used for centuries in their ceremonies. • Soon Spanish priests began making the natives pay tribute (goods: maize/ deer hide or service). • Natives that practiced their own religion or refused the priests were beaten.
Pope’s Rebellion • One Pueblo religious leader was known as Pope; • The priests believed his worship was witchcraft, and beat Pope, which left a deep hatred in his heart. • In 1680, Pope led a well-organized revolt (17,000 people) against the Spanish priests in New Mexico. • They destroyed Spanish churches, killed priests, and drove the Spanish back to New Spain. They were able to once again become independent for 14 years. • England will soon replace Spain’s presence in North America.
Review: # 1 • Spain’s motivation was: • The desire for gold/ silver • To spread Catholicism; • To expand the Spanish empire
# 2 • The Spanish were able to succeed b/c of: • Superior weaponry • Superior military supplies • Disease • Native allies
# 3 • Spain est. the colonies… • To exploit the region • To protect it from other European powers • To gain converts to Catholicism
# 4 • Spain controlled their colonies by… • Importing Spanish settlers to impose their culture • By est. congregaciones and the encomienda system • Military force
# 5 • The Pueblos rebelled against Spain because… • The Spanish had imposed their religion and culture • Made forced laborers of them • Forced the to pay tribute • Physically abused them
# 6 • Pope’s rebellion resulted in… • Spanish churches being destroyed • Priests executed • Settlers driven out of New Mexico
Chapter 2.2: An English Settlement at Jamestown • The first permanent English settlement in North America was founded at Jamestown, VA. in 1607 • English colonies in Virginia developed into the present states of the southern United States
Terms to define… • John Smith • Joint-Stock Company • Jamestown • Powhatan • Headright System • Indentured Servant • Royal Colony • Nathaniel Bacon
One American’s Story (pg. 42) • Who is the main orator of the passage? • What is the main idea of the passage? • When did this take place? • Where did this take place? • Why did this take place?
English Settlers Struggle in North America • Disease and starvation nearly kept the United States from ever forming • Spanish rulers funded its explorations to the new world; however the English established companies to fund these voyages. • Joint-Stock Companies were the result of semi-wealthy men pooling their money together to finance a private voyage to the new world. • These companies had to first get a charter (official permit) from the king before sailing off.
English Settlers Struggle in North America • King James granted a charter to the Virginia Company, who hoped to est. a colony on the eastern coast of North America. • The Virginia Company was made up of small investors who would split the profits from the land 4/5—the king would get 1/5. • The Company could afford three ships—Susan Constant, Discovers, and the Godspeed. There were 150 passengers. • The ships reached land in April 1607—they named the settlement “Jamestown” after their king—James Stuart. (Google Earth)
English Settlers Struggle in North America • John Smith was captain of this voyage; he urged people to began preparing for disaster, but few listened. Rather, they searched endlessly for gold. • Disease from contaminated water hit first, then famine, hypothermia, etc. It was a disastrous start. With only 38 colonist left of the original 150, John Smith became a temporary dictator, claiming all those that do not farm will not eat! • Smith persuaded the local tribe (Powhatan..”POW-a-tan”) to provide food for the settlers. They were skeptical of the new settlers, but agreed to help them survive. • Luckily, 600 new colonist arrived in 1609 with supplies—this greatly alarmed the Powhatan, who then began to sabotage their colony. • Of the 600—only about 60 survived.
English Settlers Struggle in North America • Of all the things that helped Jamestown survive— tobacco was the most important. • John Rolfe was able to create a strain of tobacco from Brazil and the natives—this was planted throughout Jamestown, and all of England soon demanded it greatly. • By 1620, Jamestown was exporting 1.5 million pounds of the “brown gold” each year to England. • In England, the Virginia Company needed to find a way to get more people to emigrate to Jamestown.
English Settlers Struggle in North America • They came up with the headright system, which gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid for their own, or another persons ticket to Jamestown. • Therefore, if you wanted to leave England, and pay for 4 other to travel with you (total of 5 people), the Virginia Company would give you 250 acres of land for tobacco use. (foundations for plantation system) • The 4 people you brought with you were known as indentured servants, and would work between 4-7 years on your plantation before being “free”, and given their own tract of land. • The Dutch first brought over enslaved Africans in 1619; they were treated like all other indentured servants.
The Settlers Clash with Native Americans • As the colony grew, the settlers continually came into contact with hostile Native American tribes. • Unlike the Spanish who intermarried with the natives, the English established strict levels of society which kept the Natives separated and at the bottom • Settlers took revenge against the Powhatan, who sabotaged them during their time of famine. Chief Powhatan’s daughter—Pocahontas, married John Rolfe (tobacco). • The chiefs brother, Chief Opechancanough, attacked and killed 340 colonists. This prompted the Virginia Colony to go bankrupt by sending in military aid to protect the colony.
The Settlers Clash with Native Americans • Disgusted by what was occurring in Jamestown, King James revoked the Virginia Company’s charter, thus making Jamestown a Royal Colony —under direct control of the king. • He sent in many more military to conquer the Powhatan.
Economic Differences Split Virginia • By 1670, many Virginian’s were former indentured servants who had eventually gained freedom. Because they did not own land, they could not vote. These men lived mainly in the western portion (frontier) of the colony. • These men felt oppressed by Virginia’s governor, Sir William Berkeley, who continually imposed taxes on the people in western VA. • The money collected was not used for the good of the colony, but rather for the personal profit of the “Grandees” or planters who lived in the eastern portion of the colony. • The western settlers became engaged in a war against the natives, and pleaded Gov. Berkeley to send in military support—he refused.
Economic Differences Split Virginia • This upset Nathaniel Bacon, the son of a wealthy landowner who hated Native Americans. • Bacon raised an army to fight against the natives in western Jamestown—Berkeley declared the army illegal. • Bacon marched to Jamestown in 1676 to protest how the frontier colonists were not represented in the Virginia House of Burgesses (1st colonial legislature in the colonies) —the protest turned violent, and Berkeley fled by ship only to return once he learned that Bacon had died of sickness. • Bacon’s Rebellion showed King Charles of England the plight of the frontier settlers, and how the policies of Berkeley were counter productive.
QUIZ!!!!!! Be ready for a quiz over Chapter 2-2!!
Ch. 2.3: Puritan New England (p. 49) One American’s Story • Who is the main orator of the passage? • What is the main idea of the passage? • When did this take place? • Where did this take place? • Why did this take place?
Terms to define… • Puritans • John Winthrop • Separatist • Plymouth Colony • Massachusetts Bay Colony • Roger Williams & Anne Hutchinson • Metacom • King Phillip’s War
Ch. 2.3 Main Ideas • English Puritans came to North America, beginning in 1620 • The United States continues to use an expanded form of representative govt begun by the Puritans.
Puritans create a “New England” • The Puritans, unlike earlier colonist, settled in the new world for religious, not economic, reasons. • John Winthrop was the 1st Puritan governor • Puritanism’s roots were in England; they wanted to totally “purify” the Anglican Church of all Catholic rituals • Pilgrims were Puritan separatists who felt they needed to leave England in order to est. a new religious order totally free of Catholicism • In 1620 they est. the Plymouth Colony —the 2nd English colony est. in North America
1. Puritans vs. the Church of England Cause of Conflict Results • Differences in religion; the Puritans believed the Church of England needed to be purified. • Puritans suffered religious persecution; some Puritans left England to form colonies in America
Puritans create a “New England” • John Winthrop obtained a royal charter for a joint-stock co. called the Massachusetts Bay Company—now Puritans had the right of self govt • They est. the Mass. Bay Colony, and Boston was the capital city. Mass migration from England to the Mass. Bay Colony—soon the Plymouth Colony was incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay Colony. • Suffrage was extended to all males who were members of the Puritan Church • The colony operated as a theocracy—Puritan law ruled the land (no drinking, swearing, theft, etc.)
II. Dissent in the Puritan Community • Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson were two dissenters within the Mass. Bay Colony • Roger Williams preached that the colonists had no right to the land (it was the natives), and that Puritan law was too strict—people should worship freely • Puritan officials were angry w/ Williams; ordered him arrested and sent back to England. • He escaped, fled south, and est. Providence, the capital city of the new colony of Rhode Island