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C3 – Chemicals in Our Lives PowerPoint Presentation
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C3 – Chemicals in Our Lives

C3 – Chemicals in Our Lives

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C3 – Chemicals in Our Lives

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  1. C3 – Chemicals in Our Lives

  2. Starter • Element or Compound?

  3. Sulphur S

  4. Carbon Dioxide CO2

  5. Water H2O

  6. Chlorine Cl2

  7. Sulphuric Acid H2SO4

  8. Carbon (Buckminsterfullerene) C60

  9. Sodium Hydroxide NaOH

  10. Definitions • Element • Contains only one type of Atom. • Found on the Periodic Table (of elements) • Compound • Consists of 2 or more elements bonded (fixed) together

  11. Which Elements are in the Compounds?

  12. Carbon Dioxide CO2

  13. Water H2O

  14. Sulphuric Acid H2SO4

  15. Sodium Hydroxide NaOH

  16. Elements, Compounds and Rocks • Rocks are a MIXTURE of Compounds • The most common compound is Silicon Dioxide SiO2 • This is commonly known as Quartz or Silica

  17. Rocks and Plate Movements

  18. The Rock Cycle Three Rock Types: Sedimentary - made from sediment Metamorphic – changed by heat and pressure Igneous – formed from Lava or Magma (molten rock)

  19. Plate Movements

  20. Useful Resources from Rocks • Coal (carbon) • Limestone (Calcium Carbonate) • Marble (Calcium Carbonate) • Rock Salt (Sodium Chloride) • Metal Ores (Compounds containing Metals)

  21. Early Chemical Industry

  22. What’s the use in Salt? • What can Salt be used for? • List as many things as you can. • Hint – For some, Think about the elements that Salt is made from.

  23. Uses of Salt • Food (seasoning and preservation) • Gritting Road (melts ice) • Making Chlorine – Bleach • Making Sodium Hydroxide – Soaps and Cleaners • Making Hydrogen Gas – A Fuel

  24. How is Salt obtained? • Evaporation of Sea Water • Mining of Rock salt • Solution mining of Rock Salt

  25. Why use salt in our food? • Preservative (stops bacteria from growing) • Flavour enhancer (seasoning) • Makes food taste better / stronger

  26. Salted Cod – Used to Preserve it

  27. What is Risk? • Risk depends upon 2 factors: • Chance of something happening • Level of harm that occurs if it does

  28. Risk • Actual Risk – A Risk calculated from actual data • Perceived Risk – A risk thought by individuals without clear data to support it

  29. Precautionary Principle • If the risks or harm from an activity may be greater than any benefit, it makes sense to restrict or stop the activity. • This is particularly true where the level of risk is as yet unknown.

  30. Salt and Health • Risks: High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease and Strokes • High Salt diet – Processed food with added salt • Salt is needed – but no more than about 4g per day • Current average intake in the UK: • Men - 11g of salt per day • Women - 8g of salt per day

  31. What is an Alkali? • Chemical Compounds that contain HYDROXIDE ions (OH-) • Turn Universal Indicator Blue or Purple • Have a pH over 7, usually between 9 (weak) and 14 (very strong)

  32. Recognising Alkalis

  33. Uses of Alkalis • Making Soap • Neutralising Soil • Making Glass • Dyeing Cloth

  34. Alkali Reactions

  35. Is it an Alkali? Sodium Hydroxide

  36. Is it an Alkali? Water

  37. Is it an Alkali? It turns Universal Indicator Blue

  38. Is it an Alkali? Potassium Hydroxide

  39. Is it an Alkali? Hydrochloric Acid

  40. Is it an Alkali? Urea (Urine)

  41. Is it an Alkali? Wasp Sting

  42. Is it an Alkali? Soapy Water

  43. Is it an Alkali? Milk