Download
how to teach flying part ii n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
How To Teach Flying Part II PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
How To Teach Flying Part II

How To Teach Flying Part II

81 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

How To Teach Flying Part II

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. How To Teach FlyingPart II Topics, Tips, Techniques, and Tricks

  2. Topics . . . • Forces Acting on an Airplane in Flight • Turning Tendencies • Airplane Stability • Loads and Load Factors • Airplane Structure • Flight Control Systems • Electrical Systems

  3. More Topics . . . • Engine Operation • Propeller • Aircraft Documents, Maintenance, and Inspections • Flight Instruments • Pitot-Static Systems • Gyroscopic Systems • Magnetic Compass

  4. More Topics . . . • Weight and Balance • Airplane Performance • Weather • Airport Operations • Airspace • Navigation • Aeromedical Information

  5. Preflight, Postflight Ground Operations Takeoffs and Climbs Basic Flight Maneuvers Slow Flight, Stalls, Spins Ground Reference Performance Maneuvers Airport Traffic Patterns Special Topics Approaches & Landings Faulty Approaches & Landings Flight by Instruments Night Operations Navigation Systems Emergency Operations Transition Training Aeronautical Decision Making More Topics . . .

  6. Preflight • Pilot Assessment • Preflight Preparation • Flight Planning • Preflight Inspection • Minimum Equipment List (MEL) • Cockpit Management • Use of Checklists

  7. Pilot Assessment • AM I SAFE? • A = Attitude • M = Medication • I = Illness • S = Stress • A = Alcohol • F = Fatigue • E = Eating (According to Airplane Flying Handbook) • E = Emotions (According to AIM)

  8. Ground Operations • Starting the Engine • Hand Propping • Standard Hand Signals by Line Crew • Taxiing • Taxi Speed • Control Position in Winds • Before Takeoff Check

  9. Prior to Takeoff Rejected Takeoff Normal Takeoff Takeoff Roll Lift-off Crosswind Takeoff Takeoff Roll Lift-off Weathervaning Short Field Takeoff Best Angle-of-Climb Best Rate-of-Climb Flaps Landing Gear Soft Field Takeoff Same for Rough Field Ground Effect Noise Abatement Takeoff

  10. Climbs After Takeoff • Initial Climb • Pitch Attitude • Airspeed • When to Retract the Landing Gear • Runway Surface Remaining • Reduce Drag • Power Reductions • Takeoff Path

  11. Basic Flight Maneuvers • Integrated Flight Instruction • Attitude Flying • Straight-and-Level Flight • Turns • Climbs • Descents

  12. Integrated Flight Instruction • Outside Visual References • The Use of Flight Instruments • Not Instrument Flight! • See and Avoid

  13. Pitch Control Elevator Bank Control Ailerons Power Control Throttle Trim control Pitch Instruments Attitude Indicator Airspeed Indicator Altimeter Vertical Speed Indicator Rate Bank Instruments Attitude Indicator Turn Coordinator Direction, Rate, Quality Attitude Flying

  14. Straight-and-Level Flight • Constant Heading and Altitude • Use Outside References • Use the Nose • Use the Wingtips • Constant Airspeed • Listen to the Noise

  15. Turns • Shallow Turns • Up to 20° of Bank • Lateral Stability Tends to Level the Wings • Medium Turns • From 20° to 45° of Bank • Tends to Remain at a Constant Bank Angle • Steep Turns • More Than 45° of Bank • Overbanking Tendency Overcomes Stability

  16. More on Turns • Total Lift is Split • Vertical Component • Opposes Gravity • Horizontal Component • Opposes Inertia • Lowered Aileron Produces Greater Drag • This Causes a Yaw Toward the Rising Wing • Adverse Yaw • Coordinated Rudder Use Overcomes Yaw

  17. More on Turns • Rudder Should Streamline With Slipstream • If Rudder is Maintained • Airplane Will Skid to the Outside of the Turn • If Opposite Rudder is Applied • Airplane Will Slip to the Inside of the Turn • Angle of Attack Must Be Increased • To Maintain Altitude

  18. More on Turns • What a Good Instructor Looks For in a Turn • If the Nose Starts to Move Before the Bank Starts • The Rudder Is Being Applied Too Soon • If the Bank Starts Before the Nose Starts Turning, or the Nose Moves in the Opposite Direction • The Rudder is Being Applied Too Late • If the Nose Moves Up or Down When Entering a Turn • Excessive or Insufficient Up-Elevator is Being Applied

  19. Climbs • Normal Climb • Constant-Pitch Attitude • Constant Airspeed • Cruise Climb • Less Rate of Climb • Increased Speed • Better Engine Cooling • Better Flight Visibility

  20. More on Climbs • Engine Torque, and • Asymmetrical Loading of the Propeller • Roll and Yaw to the Left or Right?

  21. More on Turns • Engine Torque, and • Asymmetrical Loading of the Propeller • Sometimes Called P-Factor • Roll and Yaw to the Left

  22. More on Turns • Engine Torque, and • Asymmetrical Loading of the Propeller • Sometimes Called P-Factor • Roll and Yaw to the Left • As the Nose is Climbing • Gyroscopic Precession • Yaw to the Left or Right?

  23. More on Turns • Engine Torque, and • Asymmetrical Loading of the Propeller • Sometimes Called P-Factor • Roll and Yaw to the Left • As the Nose is Climbing • Gyroscopic Precession • Yaw to the Right

  24. More on Turns • Engine Torque, and • Asymmetrical Loading of the Propeller • Sometimes Called P-Factor • Roll and Yaw to the Left • As the Nose is Climbing • Gyroscopic Precession • Yaw to the Right • A Left Turn May Require Right Rudder!

  25. Descents • Sometimes Called a Glide • Effect of Weight on a Glide? • If Two Aircraft have the Same Lift Over Drag Ratio (L/D), and • At the Correct and a Constant Airspeed • Higher Weight Gets There Sooner • Because a Higher Airspeed is Required for Max Glide • Lower Weight Gets To the Same Point, but Later

  26. More on Descents • With a Windmilling Propeller • Pitch Controls Airspeed • If Drag Increases • Such as Lowering Gear and/or Flaps • Airspeed Will Decrease Unless the Nose is Lowered

  27. If the Nose is Lowered to Maintain Airspeed Glide Angle Increases, and The Distance Traveled is Reduced If the Nose is Not Lowered and a Reduced Airspeed is Maintained Glide Angle Increases, and The Distance Traveled is Reduced More on Descents

  28. Slow Flight • Defined as Flight at Any Airspeed that is Less Than Cruise Airspeed • Maintain Altitude While Slowing • Trim

  29. Stalls and Stall Recovery • A Stall Can Occur at any Airspeed, in any Attitude, with any Power Setting • Stall Awareness • Vision • Hearing • Kinesthesia • Control Pressures • Stall Warning Indicators

  30. Stalls and Stall Recovery • Stall Recovery • Pitch Attitude and Angle of Attack • Reduce Angle of Attack only Enough to Regain Lift • Power • Decreases Loss of Altitude • Straight-and-Level Flight • Maximum Lift

  31. Stalls and Stall Recovery • Practice in This Order • Approaches to Stalls • Student Becomes Familiar with Indications of Approaching Stall • Recover with No Power • Demonstrates that Angle of Attack Ends the Stall • Recover With Power • Demonstrates that Power Reduces Loss of Altitude • Full Stalls • Reduces Fear and Instills Confidence

  32. Stalls and Stall Recovery • Power-Off Stalls • Power-On Stalls • Turning Stalls • Practice in Different Configurations • Landing Gear Up and Down • Flaps Up and at Different Settings • Consider the Falling Leaf Demonstration

  33. Stalls and Stall Recovery • Proper Use of Controls in Stall Recovery • Use of Aileron Requires Great Finesse • Does Cause Adverse Yaw and Could Lead to a Spin • The Rudder Use Must be Coordinated • Rudder Will Control Yaw and Slip • The Rudder Will Also Keep Wings Level • The Elevator is Used to Recover from the Dive • First, Pitch Down to Break the Stall • Second, Pitch Up to Recover From the Dive

  34. Stalls and Stall Recovery • Factors Affecting Stalling Characteristics • Balance • Forward CG Increases Stalling Speed • Bank • Pitch Attitude • Coordination • Drag • Power • Weight • Higher Weight Increases Stalling Speed

  35. Stalls and Stall Recovery • Secondary Stalls • Caused by Hastening the Recovery, or • By Abrupt Use of the Controls • Accelerated Stalls • Refers to the Stall, not the Airspeed • Stall Occurs More Rapidly and Severely • May Be at a Higher Airspeed • Generally Caused by Excessive Back-Elevator Pressure

  36. Stalls and Stall Recovery • Cross-Control Stall • Left Rudder, Right Aileron, Back Elevator • Elevator Trim Stall • Retard the Throttle, Mid-Range Flaps, Gear Down, Normal Glide Speed, Trim • Then Advance Throttle to Maximum Without Stopping the Pitch-Up • Recover Before the Stall Occurs

  37. Spins and Spin Recovery • A Stall is a Requirement for a Spin • No Stall - No Spin! • How Do You Know Which Direction the Airplane is Spinning? • Check the Turn-and-Slip Indicator • Not the Ball! • What is Happening if the Airspeed is Increasing? • It’s a Spiral, Not a Spin!

  38. Ground Reference Maneuvers • Place an “X” at the point on the circle where the bank angle is the greatest during a turn around a point with the wind as shown. Let’s assume left-hand turns. • Direction of Flight Wind

  39. Ground Reference Maneuvers • Place an “X” at the point on the circle where the bank angle is the greatest during a turn around a point with the wind as shown. Let’s assume left-hand turns. • Direction of Flight Wind

  40. Ground Reference Maneuvers • Place an “X” at the point on the circle where the bank angle is the greatest during a turn around a point with the wind as shown. Let’s assume left-hand turns. • Direction of Flight Wind

  41. Ground Reference Maneuvers • Place an “X” at the point on the circle where the bank angle is the greatest during a turn around a point with the wind as shown. Let’s assume left-hand turns. • Direction of Flight Wind

  42. Ground Reference Maneuvers • Private Pilot • Rectangular Course • Left and Right • S-Turns Across a Road • Turns Around a Point • More Than One Turn! • Commercial Pilot • Eights on Pylons

  43. Ground Reference Maneuvers • Enter Downwind • Choose an Airspeed Below Va • What Altitude Do We Select? • 600 to 1,000 feet AGL • Choose a Location That Has a Suitable Place to Land, If That Should Become Necessary • Low Altitude Limits the Time Needed to Look for a Place to Land if the Engine Quits

  44. Performance Maneuvers • Private Pilot • Steep Turns • Commercial Pilot • Steep Spirals • Chandelles • Lazy Eights

  45. Performance Maneuvers • Bank Must Not Exceed 60° • Load Factor at 60° is 2-Gs • Load Factor at 70° is 3-Gs • General Aviation Airplanes are Typically Rated for 3.8-Gs • At What Airspeed Will An Airplane Stall in a 60° Bank if it Stalls at 60 knots in Level Flight?

  46. Performance Maneuvers • Bank Must Not Exceed 60° • Load Factor at 60° is 2-Gs • Load Factor at 70° is 3-Gs • General Aviation Airplanes are Typically Rated for 3.8-Gs • At What Airspeed Will An Airplane Stall in a 60° Bank if it Stalls at 60 knots in Level Flight? 85 knots!

  47. Airport Operations • Ground Operations • Signage and Lighting • Traffic Pattern Operations • Entry, Exit, Altitude, Airspeed • Towered Airports • Who’s In Charge? • Non-Towered Airports • Standard Procedures Are Good!

  48. Positive Aircraft Control Positive Exchange of Flight Controls Stall/Spin Awareness Collision Avoidance Wake Turbulence Avoidance Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) Runway Incursion Avoidance Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT) Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) Checklist Usage Special Topics

  49. Normal Approach Base Final Approach Roundout (Flare) Touchdown After-Landing Roll Crosswind Approach Base Final Approach Roundout (Flare) Touchdown After-Landing Roll Approaches and Landings

  50. Approaches and Landings • Go-Arounds (Rejected Landings) • Slips • Forward Slips • Normally Used to Increase Decent Angle Without an Increase in Airspeed • Side Slips • Normally Used to Approach in a Crosswind to Counteract Wind Drift • Hydroplaning • Speed = 8.6 Times the Square Root of the Tire Pressure