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PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

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PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

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  1. PSY 369: Psycholinguistics Review for Exam 1

  2. Cohort model • Three stages of word recognition 1) Contact: Activate a set of possible candidates based on initial phonemes 2) Selection: Narrow the search to one candidate using further bottom-up and some top-down information • Recognition point (uniqueness point) - point at which a word is unambiguously different from other words and can be recognized 3) Integration: combine the single candidate into semantic and syntactic context Semantic priming effects happen in this stage

  3. Cohort model • Prior context: “I took the car for a …” Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 /s/ /sp/ /spi/ /spin/ … soap spinach psychologist spin spit sun spank … spinach spin spit spank … spinach spin spit … spin time

  4. Comparing the models • Each model can account for major findings (e.g., frequency, semantic priming, context), but they do so in different ways. • Information flow • Search model is serial and bottom-up • Logogen is parallel and interactive (information flows up and down) • Cohort is bottom-up & parallel initially, then interactive at a later stage • The decision process • Logogen model – activation increases with no effort • In the cohort model, words must be actively rejected from the cohort

  5. Homework 1 • Two banks in neighboring towns were reported robbed by the state police yesterday. • Purpose of question 2: • Gain insight to the complexity of a single sentence • It feels easy to understand it, • But, look how hard it is to consciously analyze the different levels of linguistic information

  6. 3 letters, 2 sounds diff letters, same sounds diff letters, same sounds Homework 1 • 2a) Phonology - useful website: • Notice, not a one-to-one correspondence between letters and phonemes two /t/ /u:/ banks /b/ /ei/ /N/ /k/ /s/ in /i/ /n/ neighboring /n/ /ei/ /b/ /o:/ /r/ /i/ /N/ towns /t/ /au/ /n/ /z/ were /w/ /e:/ /r/ reported /r/ /i:/ /p/ /o:/ /r/ /t/ /e/ /d/ robbed /r/ /a:/ /b/ /d/ by /b/ /ai/ the /TH/ /^/ state /s/ /t/ /ei/ /t/ police /p/ /Ou/ /l/ /I:/ /s/ yesterday /j/ /e/ /s/ /t/ /e:/ /r/ /d/ /ei/

  7. Homework 1 • 2b) Morphology FreeBound two two banks bank -s inflectional in in neighboring neighbor -ing inflectional towns town -s inflectional were were reported report -ed inflectional robbed rob -ed inflectional by by the the state state police police yesterday day yester- derivational

  8. Homework 1 • 2c) Syntax: Two banks in neighboring towns were reported robbed by the state police yesterday. • 2 different deep structures --transformations--> arrive at same surface structure • It was reported by the state police yesterdaythat two banks in neighboring towns were robbed. • It was reported that two banks in neighboring towns were robbed by the state police yesterday. • So the tree structures end up attaching the prepositional phrase to one verb or the other in the resulting surface structure.

  9. Homework 1 • 2d&e) Lexical Ambiguity: Two banks in neighboring towns were reported robbed by the state police yesterday. • 2 different meanings: RIVER bank, MONEY bank • How do we know which meaning? • Frequency of meaning? • Content of rest of the sentence? “robbed”, do we hold both interpretations until it gets resolved here (6 words later)? • Prior Context? A) May is discussing a local newspaper story with her co-worker, Ash, over lunch. B) May, a bank manager, wonders aloud whether she should upgrade the security system in the bank. Ash, the assistant manager says

  10. Language perception Word/morpheme recognition Syntactic analysis Semantic & pragmatic analysis Input b dog Two banks in neighboring towns were reported robbed by the state police yesterday. a bank n bank S k wolf NP VP s tree PP banks two V NP yarn were /b/ In neighboring towns /ae/ cat /n/ claw /k/ /s/ fur hat Homework 1 • 2f,g,&h) introspect about comprehension processes involved

  11. Exam 1 Review • Chapters 1,2,3,5. • What is language? Psycholinguistics? • Kinds of linguistic information • Basic cognitive structures and processes • Storing and retrieving information about words • Exam format: • Multiple choice (similar to quizzes) • Vocabulary matching • Short answer

  12. What is “psycholinguistics”? Psycho Linguistics

  13. What is “psycholinguistics”? Mental Processes • Short Term Memory • Long Term Memory • Encoding • Retrieval • Mental Representations Psycho Linguistics Linguistic Theory • Phonology • Morphology • Syntax • Semantics • - Rules

  14. Systems of Communication • There are a variety of methods to communicate • E.g., Dogs bark, Birds sing, Bees dance • People talk - we use language (as well as other methods) for communication • How does language differ from other systems of communication? What are the properties of human language?

  15. Features of Language (Hockett, 1960) • Arbitrariness • Displacement • Productivity • Discreteness • Semanticity • Duality of patterning

  16. Levels of analysis

  17. Phonology • The sounds of a language • Phonemes, allophones & phones • Articulatory features • Rules about how to put the sounds together • Rule: If /p/ is used in word initial position you add aspiration (a puff of air), if word internal don’t aspirate

  18. No internal morphological structure y, e, s have no meaning in isolation “yes” Internal morphological structure unhappiness horses talking happy, horse, talk -s plural -ing duration un- negative -ness state/quality Morphology • Morpheme – smallest unit that conveys meaning

  19. Syntax • More than surface linear position matters, underlying structure is important.

  20. Syntax • Generative Grammar • The pieces: • Grammatical features of words • Dog: Noun • Bite: Verb • Phrase structure rules- these tell us how to build legal structures • S --> NP VP • VP --> V (NP) • NP --> (A) (ADJ) N

  21. Syntax • Generative Grammar • Recursion: you can embed structures within structures • NP --> (A) (ADJ) N (PP) • PP --> Prep NP • So we NP’s can be embedded within PP’s which in turn may be embedded within NP’s. • The dog with the bone of the dinosaur from the cave with the paintings of the animals with fur bit the man. • Productivity: The result is an infinite number of syntactic structures from a finite set of pieces

  22. S --> NP VP VP --> V (NP) NP --> (A) (ADJ) N Syntax • Transformational grammar Chomsky (1957, 1965) • Two stages phrase structures for a sentence • Build DeepStructure • Build from phrase structure rules • One constituent at a time • Convert to SurfaceStructure • Built from transformations that operate on the deep structure • Adding, deleting, moving • Operate on entire strings of constituents

  23. In the 90’s Semantics • Philosophy of meaning • Sense and reference • “The world’s most famous athlete.” • “The athlete making the most endorsement income.” • 2 distinct senses, 1 reference Now • Over time the senses typically stay the same, while the references may change

  24. Semantics • Two levels of analysis (and two traditions of psycholinguistic research) • Word level (lexical semantics) • How do we store words? • How are they organized? • How do words relate to meaning? • Sentence level (compositional semantics) • How do word meanings and syntax interact?

  25. Pragmatics • Sentences do more than just state facts, instead they are uttered to perform actions • How to do things with words (J. L. Austin, 1955 lectures) • Using registers • Conversational implicatures • Speech acts

  26. Cognitive Psychology Information ‘flows’ from one memory buffer to the next

  27. Properties • sensory specific • high capacity • extremely fast decay Cognitive Psychology Information ‘flows’ from one memory buffer to the next

  28. Properties • rapid access • limited capacity • fast decay (rehearsal) Cognitive Psychology Information ‘flows’ from one memory buffer to the next

  29. Cognitive Psychology Working Memory Information ‘flows’ from one memory buffer to the next

  30. Working Memory • Working memory instead of STM

  31. Cognitive Psychology Properties • Capacity: Unlimited? • Duration: Decay/ interference • Organized Information ‘flows’ from one memory buffer to the next

  32. Long term memory: Organization The Multiple Memory Stores Theory • Different memory components, each storing different kinds of information. • Declarative • episodic - memories about events • semantic - knowledge of facts • Procedural - memories about how to do things (e.g., the thing that makes you improve at riding a bike with practice. Declarative • episodic • semantic Procedural

  33. Conceptualizer Thought Semantic Analysis Formulator Grammatical Encoding Syntactic Analysis Lexicon Phonological Encoding Word Recognition Letter/phoneme Recognition Articulator Storing linguistic information • How are words stored? What are they made up of? How are word related to each other? How do we use them? • Mental lexicon The representation of words in long term memory • Lexical Access: How do we activate (retrieve) the meanings (and other properties) of words?

  34. horse horses barn barns horse -s barn Lexical primitives • Word primitives • Need a lot of representations • Fast retrieval • Morpheme primitives • Economical - fewer representations • Slow retrieval - some assembly required • Decomposition during comprehension • Composition during production

  35. Lexical organization • How are the lexical representations organized? • Alphabetically? • Initial phoneme? • Semantic categories? • Grammatical class? • Something more flexible, depending on your needs?

  36. Lexical organization • Factors that affect organization • Phonology • Frequency • Imageability, concreteness, abstractness • Grammatical class • Semantics

  37. Lexical organization • Factors that affect organization • Phonology • Frequency • Imageability, concreteness, abstractness • Grammatical class • Semantics

  38. Meaning based representations Grammatical based representations Sound based representations Lexical organization • Another possibility is that there are multiple levels of representation, with different organizations at each level

  39. Semantic Networks • Semantic Networks • Words can be represented as an interconnected network of sense relations • Each word is a particular node • Connections among nodes represent semantic relationships

  40. has long legs Robin eats worms Ostrich is fast can’t fly has a red breast Semantic Networks • Hierarchical Models Collins and Quillian (1969) has skin Animal can move around breathes has fins has feathers can swim Fish can fly Bird has gills has wings

  41. Semantic Networks • Prototypes Rosch, (1973) • Some members of a category are better instances of the category than others • Fruit: apple vs. pomegranate • What makes a prototype? • More central semantic features • What type of dog is a prototypical dog • What are the features of it? • We are faster at retrieving prototypes of a category than other members of the category

  42. street vehicle car bus truck house orange Fire engine fire red blue apple pear tulips roses fruit flowers Semantic Networks • Spreading activation Collins & Loftus (1975) • Words represented in lexicon as a network of relationships • Organization is a web of interconnected nodes in which connections can represent: • categorical relations • degree of association • typicality

  43. Lexical access • How do we retrieve the linguistic information from Long-term memory? • What factors are involved in retrieving information from the lexicon? • Models of lexical retrieval

  44. Select word Retrieve lexical information Input Cat noun Animal, pet, Meows, furry, Purrs, etc. cat cat Recognizing a word Search for a match dog cap wolf tree yarn cat cat claw fur hat

  45. Lexical access • Factors affecting lexical access • Frequency • Semantic priming • Role of prior context • Phonological structure • Morphological structure • Lexical ambiguity

  46. Models of lexical access • Serial comparison models • Search model (Forster, 1976, 1979, 1987, 1989) • Parallel comparison models • Logogen model (Morton, 1969) • Cohort model (Marslen-Wilson, 1987, 1990)

  47. ‘cat’ ‘cot’ Logogen model (Morton 1969) Auditory stimuli Visual stimuli Auditory analysis Visual analysis Context system Semantic Attributes Logogen system Available Responses Output buffer Responses

  48. Visual input Auditory input Pointers Access codes /kat/ cat Decreasing frequency Entries in order of mat cat mouse Mental lexicon Search model

  49. Cohort model • Prior context: “I took the car for a …” /s/ /sp/ /spi/ /spin/ … soap spinach psychologist spin spit sun spank … spinach spin spit spank … spinach spin spit … spin time