Common Core State Standards Phonics and Word Recognition Fluency Grades K-2 SNRPDP
Foundational SkillsPages 15 & 16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder • They are not an end in and of themselves. • They are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program. • They are necessary to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. SNRPDP
Foundational SkillsPages 15 & 16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder • Good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. • Teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know. • Each skill need not to be a separate focus of instruction. Often several skills can be addressed by a single rich task. SNRPDP
Phonics and Word RecognitionELA Kindergartenpage 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. • a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sound for each consonant. • b. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels. • c. Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does). • d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ. G NV Standard (translation document) Identifying high frequency words to build fluency and comprehension; identifying letter-sound relationships; decoding words using letter/sound relationships; and decoding words in text through short/long vowels. SNRPDP
Phonics and RecognitionELA First Gradepage 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder l. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and words analysis skills in decoding words. • a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs. • b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words. • c. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds. • d. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word. • e. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. • f. Read words with inflectional endings. • g. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. G NV Standard (translation document) Decoding words in text through short and long vowels, and digraphs; decoding words through structural analysis using syllables, with assistance. SNRPDP
Phonics and Word RecognitionELA Second Gradepage 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. • a. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words. • b. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams. • c. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels. • d. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. • e. Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences. • f. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. G NV Standard (translation document) Decoding words in text through phonics (long vowel spelling patterns) and structural analysis (prefixes and suffixes) SNRPDP
Reading: The Big Picture Comprehension Fluency Decoding Phonological Awareness
Beginning Reading… Thirty years of research suggests that the most effective beginning reading programs are those that provide systematic, explicit phonics instruction and also focus on comprehension. (Adams, 1990; Chall, 1967, 1987; Pressley, 1998)
automatic accurate quick effortless automatic + strategic knowledgeable flexible persistent Reading = Decoding X Comprehension
Expert Reader Decoding Novice Reader Comprehension Comprehension Decoding
How important is word identification instruction? • Critically important in that many students have difficulty “breaking the code” without explicit instruction. • If lack of success continues through primary grades, students continue in a “negative spiral” (Stanovich 1986).
Matthew Effects (Stanovich, 1986) reads more likes to read good comprehension good decoding isp.a. poor decoding not p.a. poor comprehension doesn’t like to read reads less
spreading activation • automatic • subconscious Proficient When a word comes in Struggler • conscious process R = D X C
Proficient . . Rules/ Analogies Background Knowledge . . . . My decoding is so automatic, I have time to work on understanding. . . Mental Dictionary (words you know in your head) Word recognition
Struggler . . syntax semantic . lexical . orthographic My decoding is so slow, that I have to rely on what the word means, rather than what it actually says.
Word Identification Goal: Novice readers need to be able to: • identify most words automatically, that is, at sight. • decode unfamiliar words by analogy (using “chunks” and “chunks with meaning” from words they know automatically). • Check to see if the word they generated makes sense and adjust, if necessary.
“Phonics instruction includes the teaching of letter-sound correspondences, the pronunciations of spelling patterns, and decoding skills (i.e. how to apply this phonics knowledge to the reading and spelling of unknown words, including how to blend the sounds together).” Dr. Timothy Shanahan, 2006 IRA President 06-07
Phonics Instructional Approaches • Analogy Phonics • Analytic Phonics • Embedded Phonics • Phonics through Spelling • Synthetic Phonics NRP, 2000
National Reading Panel Phonics Instruction (pp. 8-11) • Types • Questions • Findings * ! ? New Interesting Questions
Discussion • What approach do you use to teach phonics? • How often do you teach phonics? • In relation to phonics, what are you doing to meet the needs of your struggling readers?
This year, I firmly made a vow, I’m going to learn to spell. I’ve studied phonics very hard. Results will surely tell. “A little bird sat on a bough, And underneath stood a cough.” That doesn’t look just right somehow. I guess I should have spelled ‘cou’. I thought I heard a distant cough But when I listened, it shut ‘ough’. Oh dear, I think my spelling’s ‘auf’. I guess I meant I heard a ‘coff’. To bake some pizza, take some dough And let it rise, but very ‘slough’. That doesn’t look just right, I know. I guess on that I stubbed my ‘tow’. My father says down in the ‘slough’ The very largest soybeans ‘grough’. Perhaps he means the obvious ‘cloo’ To better crops, is soil that’s ‘nue’ Cheap meat is often very tough. We seldom like to eat the ‘stough’. I’m all confused; this spelling’s ‘ruff’. I guess I’ve studied long ‘enuph’. English as it is Spelled
IRA Position Statement Three basic principles regarding phonics and the teaching of reading: • The teaching of phonics is an important aspect of beginning reading instruction. • Classroom teachers in the primary grades do value and do teach phonics as part of their reading program. • Phonics instruction, to be effective in promoting independence in reading, must be embedded in the context of a total reading/language arts program.
Phonics Instruction: Beyond the Basics Phonics instruction should aim to teach only the most important and regular of letter-to-sound relationships…once the basic relationships have been taught, the best way to get children to refine and extend their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences is through repeated opportunities to read. —Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, and Wilkinson (1985)
Effective Teaching • “…the most effective first-grade teachers…taught decoding skills explicitly and provided their students with many opportunities to engage in authentic reading.” • “…it is what teachers do to promote application of phonics knowledge during the reading of connected text that matters most.” Wharton-McDonald, Pressley, and Hampston (1998)
Reading for Meaning “Children in classrooms that taught [phonics] skills in context did better than children in classrooms where skills were taught out of context on every measure of reading achievement including word analysis (phonics), fluency, comprehension, and spelling.” Cantrell (1999)
The Alphabetic Principle --The sounds within spoken words are represented in writing by letters, and that those letters represent the sounds rather consistently.
Why do we teach the sounds of letters? So they can be blended together to make words
Letter-Sound Sequence a c b d
Letter Sound Types • Continuous Sounds • Stop Sounds • Voiced Sounds • Unvoiced Sounds
Continuous Sounds • “Stretch-able” sounds--/m/ • Can be held out or elongated without distortion • Easiest sounds for children to produce and blend • Use first
Stop Sounds • “Quick” sounds--/b/ • Cannot be held out or elongated without distortion • Voiced stop sounds are impossible to produce in isolation • Avoid adding “uh” or “schwa” sound after
Voiced Sounds • “Voice” occurs when the vocal folds (aka vocal cords) vibrate. • This vibration makes the sound more audible. • The vibration may also contribute to sound distortion, especially in voiced stop consonants--/b/
Unvoiced Sounds • Produced without vocal fold vibration • Air moves past still vocal folds during an unvoiced sound • Unvoiced stop consonants are easier to blend--/p/
Continuous Stop l m n r v w b d g j y z • Find and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching points • Write Letter-Sound Sequence next to the standard a e i o u Unvoiced Voiced c h p t f s q x
Letter Sounds • Teaching approximations of sounds • Systematic: logical sequence • Start with the easiest and move to more difficult: Consonant—Voiced Continuous—Unvoiced Stop—Unvoiced Stop—Voiced
Decoding “…the purpose of teaching phonics… is to be able to decode words. Given this purpose, it follows that very early in the instructional sequence children should experience decoding some words.”
Confusions:Visual Similarities b and d b and p q and p n and m n, h and m v and w n and r
Confusions:Auditory Similarities f and v t and d b and d b and t k and g m and n i and e o and u ch and sh
“We can list the phonemes but the way they actually work in words is not quite as straight forward.” —Louisa Moats
BlendingTeaching Children How Words Work “Phonics instruction will be of limited value until a child can blend the component sounds in words.” Blevins, 1998
Blending Methods • Final Blending (sound-by-sound) • Successive Blending (whole word) This instruction is critical to enabling children to generalize sound-spelling relationships to new words.
Final BlendingSound-by Sound Blending • The sound of each spelling is stated and stored. The whole word isn’t blended until all the sounds in the word have been identified and pronounced. sat /s/ /a/ /sa/ /t/ /sat/
Final Blending • Allows the teacher to determine where a student is having difficulty as he or she attempts to blend unfamiliar words. • Helps the teacher determine which students lack the ability to orally string together sounds.
Successive BlendingWhole-Word or Continuous Blending • Students stretch out, or hold, each sound in a word without pausing between the sounds. sat ssssaaaatssaat sat
“The goal of teaching phonics is to develop students’ ability to read connected text independently.” Adams, 1990
Variety of Text • Decodable (controlled) text • Predictable/patterned text • Trade books
Criteria for controlled/decodable text • Comprehensible • Natural sounding—Words must be derived from children’s speaking/listening vocabularies • Instructive • Strong connection between instruction and text • Interesting • Engaging—revisited often to develop fluency and increase reading rate.
Word Building • Supports decoding and word recognition by giving students opportunities consistently to experience and discriminate the effects on a word of changing one letter. • An opportunity to play with sounds and spelling
Word Building Practice a d h i s t • Find and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching points • Write Word Building Practice next to the standard