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Bullying Prevention

Bullying Prevention

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Bullying Prevention

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  1. Bullying Prevention Student, Staff, & Parent Perspectives on Bullying: Implications for School-wide Bullying Prevention Catherine Bradshaw, Ph.D., M.Ed. Associate Professor, Department of Mental Health Associate Director, Johns Hopkins Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence (CDC) Co-Director, Johns Hopkins Center for Prevention & Early Intervention (NIMH) Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health cbradsha@jhsph.edu July 2010

  2. Overview • Summary of research on bullying - Definitions, forms & effects • Integrating PBIS with bullying prevention • Things you can do to prevent bullying through PBIS • Resources on bullying

  3. Defining Bullying • Aggressive behavior that intends to cause harm or distress • Usually is repeated over time • Occurs in a relationship where there is an imbalance of power or strength (HRSA, 2006; Limber & Alley, 2006; Olweus, 1993)

  4. Why Focus on Bullying? Growing National & Local Concerns • High profile cases and specific incidents (Leary et al., 2003; Verlinden et al., 2000) • Increased awareness of negative effects • Social-emotional & mental health (Nansel et al., 2001) • Academic performance (Glew et al., 2005) • Health (Fekkes et al., 2006) • 44 states have passed legislation related to bullying (Limber & Alley, 2006; NY Times, 2010) • Maryland General Assembly Bills Passed (2008) • Safe School Reporting Act of 2005 - Sunset repeal (HB1209) • Safe Schools Reporting Act - Teacher report (HB1158) • Bullying and Cyber-Bullying - Develop model policies & programs (HB199)

  5. Being bullied 1 or more times in the last month Elementary – 48% Middle – 47% High – 39% Frequent involvement in bullying(2+ in last month) Elementary – 31% Middle – 31% High – 26% Ever bully someone else Elementary – 24% Middle – 45% High – 54% Witnessing bullying during the last month Elementary – 58% Middle – 74% High – 79% Prevalence of Bullying N=25,119 (Students grades 4-12; December 2005). Also see: Bradshaw et al., 2007, 2008; Nansel et al., 2001; O’Brennan, Bradshaw & Sawyer, 2009; Spriggs et al., 2007; Finkelhor et al., 2010.

  6. Forms of Bullying Direct • Hitting, kicking, shoving, spitting, stealing • Taunting, teasing, sexual comments • Threatening, obscene gestures Indirect • Getting another person to bully someone for you • Spreading rumors • Deliberately excluding someone from a group or activity • Cyberbullying

  7. Forms of Bullying How were you bullied within the last month? (N=25,119 students grades 4-12)

  8. Cyberbullying • Study of 3,767 children (grades 6-8) • Prevalence • 25% of girls and 11% of boys had been cyberbullied at least once • 13% of girls and 9% of boys had cyberbullied someone else at least once • Common methods of cyberbullying • Instant messaging: 67% (8th graders more) • Chat rooms: 25% • E-mail: 24% • Website: 24% • Text messaging: 15% (8th graders more) • Who did the cyberbullying? • Student at school (53%) • Didn’t know (48%) • Friend (37%) • Sibling (13%) • Appears to be different from other forms of bullying (Kowalski et al., 2007; Spriggs et al., in press)

  9. Types of Cyberbullying • Flaming: online fights with angry language • Harassment: repeatedly sending mean or insulting messages • Denigration: sending gossip, rumors • Outing: sharing secrets or embarrassing information • Trickery: tricking someone to sharing secrets • Impersonation: pretending to be someone else, while posting damaging material • Exclusion: cruelly excluding someone • Cyberstalking: intense harassment that includes threats and creates fear

  10. Sexting • Sending or forwarding sexually explicit photos, videos or messages from a mobile phone or other digital device. • Approximately 20% teens aged 12-18 have engaged in sexting, by either sending or receiving sexually suggestive text messages or email with nude or nearly nude photos or videos of themselves or someone they know. • Students and staff must be alerted that they could be breaking the law if they create, forward or even save this type of message. Pew Research Center (2009); Cox Communications (2009); National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy (2008)

  11. Gender and Development Differences • Males generally more likely than females to be both perpetrators and victims • Except cyberbullying, which may be more common among girls • Physical forms more common among boys • Indirect (relational) about equal for males and females • Tends to peak in middle school • Except cyberbullying, which appears to increase through high school (Nansel et al. JAMA, 2001)

  12. Location of Bullying Where were you bullied within the last month? N=25,119 (Students grades 4-12; December 2005)

  13. Immediate Effects of Bullying When you were bullied, were you: Note. This question was not asked of elementary children.

  14. Effects of Bullying forVictims & Perpetrators Social-Emotional Problems • V - Anxiety & Depression (Eagan & Perry, 1998) • P - Aggressive behavior & attitudes supporting retaliation (Bradshaw et al., 2008) • P - Suicidal ideation (Rigby, 1996; van der Wal et al., 2003) Physical Illness (Fekkes et al., 2003) • V - Headaches (3 times as likely) • V - Problems sleeping (twice as likely) • V - Abdominal pain (twice as likely) Academic Performance & Engagement • V&P - Absenteeism, avoidance of school, dropout (Smith et al., 2004; Rigby, 1996) • V&P - Dislike school, feel less connected to others at school, & lower grades (Bradshaw et al., 2008; Eisenberg et al., 2003) • V&P - Perceive climate to be less favorable & feel unsafe at school (Bradshaw et al., 2008) • V&P - Lower class participation - leads to lower achievement (Buhs et al., 2006) (Note. V = Victim, P = Perpetrator)

  15. Perceptions of Safety By Frequency of Involvement in Bullying

  16. Response to Bullying When you were bullied, what did you do? N=25,119 (Students grades 4-12; Waasdorp & Bradshaw, under review)

  17. Staff Perceptions & Student Reports of the Prevalence of Frequent Bullying HS Student Report (22.7%) Percent of Staff Respondents % Staff Reporting Prevalence Rate MS Student Report (32.7%) ES Student Report (33.7%) Percent of Students Perceived By Staff to Be Frequently Bullied (Bradshaw et al., 2007, SPR)

  18. Students (N=15,185) Seen adults at school watching bullying and doing nothing Middle – 43% High – 54% Believe adults at their school are NOT doing enough to stop or prevent bullying Middle – 58% High – 66% Believe that teachers who try to stop bullying only make it worse Middle – 61% High – 59% Staff (N=1,547) Said they would intervene if they saw bullying 97% Believe have effective strategies for handling bullying 87% Believe they made things worse when they intervened 7% Student vs. Staff Perceptions (% “agree” to “strongly agree”) (Bradshaw et al., 2007, SPR)

  19. Staff Victimization • 22% of (all) staff reported having been bullied at their school (as adults) • 8.8% by another staff • 7.7% by parent • 6.3% by student • Rates highest for middle school staff • 34% MS, 21% HS, 17% ES • 53% reported having been bullied as a child (Bradshaw et al., 2007, SPR)

  20. Staff Experiences with Bullying • Staff Efficacy: Staff who had effective strategies • Thought bullying was less of a problem • Thought their school was doing “enough” to prevent bullying • Were more likely to intervene • Were less likely to make the situation worse • Felt safer at school • Felt like they belonged at school (Bradshaw et al., 2007, SPR)

  21. Parent Perceptions of Bullying • My child has witnessed bullying during the last month • Elementary – 27.0% • Middle – 48.1% • High – 43.1% • Bullying is a problem at my child’s school • Elementary – 12.6% • Middle – 38.7% • High – 40.6% • Believe students who misbehave at school get away with it • Elementary – 20.2% • Middle – 46.2% • High – 52.3% • Believe adults at their child’s school are NOT doing enough to stop or prevent bullying • Elementary – 17.4% • Middle – 41.4% • High – 40.6% (N=1,495 parents in December 2008; Waasdorp & Bradshaw, under review)

  22. Parent Perceptions of Bullying When your child was bullied, what did you do? % Parents (N=773 parents of victimized children, Waasdorp & Bradshaw, under review)

  23. More on Parent Perceptions • Inverse association between parents’ perception of the school and response to bullying • Parents are less likely to talk to their child if they perceive a more positive school climate. • Parents are less likely to contact the school if they perceive a more positive school climate • Suggests that either • 1) parents are taking a more ‘hands-off’ approach to their child’s victimization if they perceive the school climate positively; • 2) schools need to actively seek out/encourage parents to discuss bullying with their children as well as feel comfortable contacting the school • When the child was indirectly victimized (rumors, exclusion) parents were less likely to contact the school as compared to when their child was overtly victimized. (N=773 parents of victimized children, Waasdorp & Bradshaw, under review)

  24. Is Bullying on the Increase? • Some recent data suggest a slight decrease in bullying (e.g., Finkelhor et al., 2010; Spriggs et al., 2007) • However, cyberbullying may be on the increase • May be due to greater access to technology (phones, Internet) • Issues related to ‘sexting’ also appear to be on the increase

  25. Frequent Victim N/S: p > .05

  26. Witnessed Bullying (past month)* p < .001, 2 = .062

  27. Cyber-Bullied (in Last Month)* p < .01, Partial 2 = .048

  28. Perceive Bullies as Popular* p < .001, 2 = .050

  29. Challenges in Bullying Prevention • Cultural acceptance • “Rite of passage” • Normative - continues into adulthood and workplace • Ambiguity in the definition and labeling of “bullying” • Adult vs. youth perceptions • Victim vs. perpetrator perceptions • Television and media portrayal • Combating stereotypes

  30. What the Research Says about Classroom Management • Poorly Managed Classrooms • increases opportunity for bullying • place all students at increased risk for behavior problems • signals to students that the class is out of control • are rated by students as having poorer climate & unsafe • limit opportunities for learning • use more reactive / punitive rather than proactive / positive management strategies (Aber et al., 1998; Ialong et al., 1999; Koth, Bradshaw & Leaf, 2008; Mitchell, Bradshaw & Leaf, in press)

  31. Integrating Programs & Services: A Multi-Component Whole-School Approach to Prevention Social Emotional Learning Student Services School Mental Health Bullying Prevention Suicide Prevention Special Education Assessment and Referral Effective Classroom Management

  32. Common “Misdirections” or Cautions in Bullying Prevention and Intervention • Zero tolerance (student exclusion) • Conflict Resolution/Peer Mediation • Group treatment for children who bully • Simple, short-term solutions

  33. Ten Elements of Best Practice in Bullying Prevention & Intervention:With A PBIS twist (HRSA, Stop Bullying Now & Olweus, 1993; Olweus et al., 2007; Ross, Horner & Stiller, 2007) http://www.pbis.org

  34. #1: Focus on the social environment of the school • Requires a change in the school climate and in norms for behavior. • A comprehensive, school-wide effort involving the entire school community is needed. • PBIS is an excellent framework to launch a bullying prevention effort.

  35. #2: Collect and review local data to determine need related to bullying, climate & violence • Review SWIS/ODR data • Administer an anonymous survey to students • Benefits of a survey: • Findings may help to motivate staff, parents to address issue • Findings will help to target specific interventions • Will provide important baseline data from which to measure improvement

  36. #3: Garner staff and parent support for prevention • Early and enthusiastic support from the principal is critical. • Commitment from a majority (80%) of classroom teachers is essential. • Teachers who are committed to bullying prevention are more likely to fully implement programs

  37. #4: Form a group to coordinate and integrate the school’s prevention activities • Should be representative of the school community (or organization): • administrator • teacher from each grade • counselor • non-teaching staff (e.g. bus driver) • school-based health professional • parent • community member • PBIS team / SIT / subcommittee?

  38. #5: Train all staff how to intervene effectively • Administrators • All Teachers • Health & mental health professionals • Support Staff • Custodians • Bus Drivers • Lunchroom Supervisors • Playground aides

  39. #6: Establish and enforce school rules and policies related to bullying • Many schools do not have explicit rules against bullying. • Rules should guide the behavior of children who bully AND children who witness bullying. • Monitor and acknowledge students for engaging in appropriate behavior both inside and outside the classroom. • Provide specific instruction and pre-correction to prevent bullying behavior from being rewarded by victims or bystanders. • Consistently use positive and negative consequences

  40. Example of Linking Bullying Prevention with PBISSchool Rules • Respect means… • We will not bully others. • We will try to help students who are bullied. • We will include students who are easily left out. • When we know somebody is being bullied, we will tell an adult at school and an adult at home.

  41. #7: Increase adult supervision in “hot spots” where bullying occurs • Focus on “hot spots” for bulling that are identified by students and through SWIS. • All adults in a school community should be vigilant to all forms of bullying.

  42. #8: Intervene consistently and appropriately in bullying situations • Are all adults prepared to intervene appropriately on-the-spot, whenever they observe bullying? • Do we have a plan for follow-up interventions with children who bully, victims of bullying, parents? • Correct the problem behaviors using a consistently administered continuum of consequences.

  43. #9: Focus some class time on bullying prevention • Set aside a small amount of time each week (class meetings). • Discuss bullying and peer relations. • Use videos, story books, role-playing, artistic expression. • Integrate bullying prevention throughout the curriculum. • Include bullying prevention in PBIS lesson plans and review of behavioral matrix.

  44. #10: Sustain these efforts over time • Bullying prevention should have no “end date.” • 3-5 years!!

  45. Available at WWW.PBIS.org