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Piero Martin & M.E. Puiatti on behalf of the RFX-mod team

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  1. RFX-mod in the European fusion programme: priorities for 2009 and medium-term plans Piero Martin & M.E. Puiatti on behalf of the RFX-mod team Consorzio RFX- Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, Padova, Italy RFX-mod 2009 programme seminar, Padova, January 20-22, 2009 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  2. Welcome to a live facility! • 2008: rich of excellent results, which • met the goals of the program, • dramatically advanced our knowledge of RFP, • gave a brighter and clearer vision on its future, • and are having a significant impact on the broader fusion community. We can build on that ! 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  3. Info on the workshop • Margherita Basso, Federica Bonomo, Elisa Carlini and Alessandro Fassina: • workshop organizers • Enrico Scek Osman and Paolo Barbato: • Computer & videoconference support • Agenda is tight: please be on time with your talks, so we can have enough time for discussion • Informal meeting, feel free to ask whatever you want (more or less…) • Group picture this morning @coffee break (next to RFX, follow the crowd) • Lunch at the RFX cantine (guests ask for ticket to Margherita) • Dinner tonight (we leave from here) 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  4. RFX timeline • 1991 - 1999 RFX operation • 2000 - 2004 Shut-down and upgrade • 2005 - now RFX-mod 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  5. The fusion-oriented RFX mission understanding the RFP physics and optimizing confinement to assess the configuration reactor’s potentials Providing state-of-the-art facilitiesfor developingactive control of MHD stability in fusion devices and in ITER in particular contributing to the understanding of fusion science, in particular: to test tokamak physics at the extreme of low field to improve predictive capabilities for the “numerical tokamak” to study analogies and synergies with the stellarator 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin 2008 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Geneva - P. Martin

  6. Accomplishing the goal, supporting the missions • Since its restart at the end of 2004, RFX-mod has continuously progressed towards its goals, in particular in: • Performance extension and understanding of RFP physics, • reliability of plasma operation, • ability of addressing key topics in MHD stability feedback control and • integration with the international fusion programme • ability of building an efficient and agreed programme • Guidelines for the RFX-mod programme are the seven missions identified in the EFDA work-programme and endorsed by the EU commission facility review panel 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  7. A positive 2008 ! • A new regime (Single Helical Axis), discovered at I>1 MA, provides a substantial improvement in confinement and robust core electron transport barriers. • Active MHD mode control has contributed to the improvement of RFX performance and to the tokamak effort: • Induced rotation of RWM’s • Benchmark of ITER codes • Advanced control modelling, in particular for multimode cases • Broad and supportive recognition of RFX-mod science and technology, both at European and international level • Increasing collaborations with tokamak and stellarator communities (both ways) • Excellent visibility at international conferences (EPS, APS, IAEA) • Increasing confidence in RFX-mod as a key player in the EU fusion program • Increasing effort on education (with very positive response!) 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  8. RFX-mod: new physics at 1.5 MA (s) upgraded MHD active control: 2008 with MHD active control: 2006 no MHD active contro 2004l A new regime is discovered, wherethe plasma spontaneously self-organizes in a single-axis helical state, with strongly improved core confinement. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin 2008 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Geneva - P. Martin

  9. A new boundary condition R&D Needs and Required Facilities for the Development of Fusion as an Energy Source Report of the Fusion Facilities Review Panel October 2008 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  10. The time-line of the facility review • It is conceivable and reasonable that within 5 years we are in a position of making a statement on the RFP confinement at high current and on its perspectives, i.e. to “complete” the mission of the present device. • This is accompanied with the complementary effort in MST (current drive, advanced regimes, diagnostics….), and with the programs of T2R and RELAX • The time frame of the facility review report gives time to design a strategy based on the results of the present RFX-mod 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  11. From the facility review report: These ITER and DEMO priorities must be complemented by • Pursuing innovation for: • Improving theoretical understanding based on first-principles; • Developing novel solutions in physics and technology and unifying experimental and theoretical knowledge from different confinement schemes; • Extending fusion physics and technology, and the relevant data bases. • New ideas from science driven R&D, access to professional and academic excellence in the fusion disciplines and adjacent fields and intensive links to universities will be vital for optimal progress in the long-term development of fusion energy. • Maintaining and renewing the staffing basis of the Programme • The training of young scientists and engineers is a particularly important task for the long-term future of the programme. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  12. From the facility review report • While recommending for the core projects a clear top-down R&D planning, the Panel is aware that the overall research field is still too wide to rely exclusively on such an approach. • As a complementary part of the programme, there must be an effort of sufficient weight to explore more tentative perspectives for innovations and improvements in areas where R&D options are still too open for exclusively pursuing target-oriented top-down approaches. • Unifying the knowledge from the experimental and theoretical work on different confinement schemes (in particular the Tokamak and the Stellarator, but also others such as the Spherical Tokamak and the RFP) will be an interesting area for the exploration of possible innovative concept improvements. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  13. An integrated facilities road-map “The Reversed Field Pinch RFX is contributing with results in otherwise inaccessible parameter ranges and there is, for the next years, scope and interest for these studies.” “Research on RFX is contributing to the understanding of a range of physics features in toroidal plasmas.” • Mission 2, Reliable Tokamak Operation: “On RFX specific studies for the active MHD and plasma wall control can be undertaken.” • Mission 4, Physics and technology of long pulse and steady state: “RFX can offer a contribution to the physics and control of resistive wall modes and to feedback systems” • Mission 5, Predicting Fusion performance: “An intensive activity in theoretical work and numerical modelling must interact with comprehensive experimental studies in a wide parameter range in order to validate the capability of codes to predict fusion. Capabilities exist experimentally in particular by the step-ladderfacilities COMPASS - ASDEX-UG (and DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod) JET (and JT-60U) and by devices which can access different shapes and features, in particular MAST, TCV, the circular Tokamaks TORE SUPRA, FTU, TEXTOR and the Reversed Field Pinches RFX (and EXTRAP) as well as the Stellarator TJ-II.” 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  14. Challenges and options • Unless something dramatically changes, it is likely that a healthy fusion programme needs a portfolio of devices and concepts, and a strong science effort (see report). • The case for RFP as a fusion device to support the international program in the ITER era is still well open, and we need to work strongly to defend it Completing the mission does not mean that, while we are doing it, we do not think to an extended and more ambitious one, of course always taking into account scientific results 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  15. A strong momentum with interesting times VERY POSITIVE SCIENTIFIC OUTCOME FROM RFX ENTHUSIASTIC PARTICIPATION IN THE SCIENTIFIC (both physics AND engineering) PROGRAMME THE INTERNATIONAL FUSION PROGRAMME IS UNDERGOING A VERY PROFOUND AND DYNAMIC CHANGE CHALLENGES and OPPORTUNITIES WELL DEFINED OBJECTIVES FOR RFX IN THE ITER ERA Explore confinement, MHD control, fusion physics, contribute to fusion performance prediction, education, maintenance of a strong and motivated experimental team for future projects A vision for a strong sci & tech program is required 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  16. Project work, innovation and scientific excellence fostered in the report The broader scientific and technological R&D for ITER and DEMO in the associated laboratories including the joint exploitation of JET is undertaken under EFDA by pan-European (and international) task forces and topical groups*. (*) Also on ASDEX-Upgrade, RFXand other facilities the programmes for forthcoming periods of exploitation are set up, by international calls for proposals with the criterion of optimally serving the established R&D objectives. Subsequently they are executed by corresponding international task forces. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  17. Guidelines for the 2009 programme • Supported by the success of the first 2008 attempt, also for 2009 the details of the experimental work-programme will be defined on the basis of a public call for proposals. • This has been open to EU and international laboratories and universities, with the aim of opening even more the RFX-mod facility to the community use. The call for proposal has been launched in early December, together with the new Task Force Structure. • 128 proposals • 8 external institutions making proposals (3 EU, 2 JP, 3 USA) 451 experimental days requested (vs. ≈ 120-130 “good run days” expected) 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  18. 2008 task force structure SOME TIMES ORGANIZING THE EXPERIMENT WAS HARDER THAT RUNNING IT…. TWO TASK FORCE LEADERS FROM EXTERNAL LABS: ENEA Frascati and University of Wisconsin, Madison RFP performance: high current operation and advanced scenarios Carraro, Sarff Databases and scaling laws Pasqualotto Density control and plasma-wall interaction Cavazzana, Dal Bello MHD and active control of instabilities Buratti, Zanca VERY GOOD JOB, THANK YOU VERY MUCH ! Particle, momentum and energy transport Spolaore Optimization of RFX-mod discharges: RFP, tokamak and non-standard plasmas Bolzonella, Zanotto >120 exp. proposals for 2008, also from external laboratories 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  19. 2009 task force structure RFP performance: high current operation and advanced scenarios Particle, momentum and energy transport Magnetic and fuelling optimization MHD and active control of stability PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION SUPPORT TEAM DATA VALIDATION AND SCALING TEAM 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  20. 2009 task force structure • RFP performance: high current operation and advanced scenarios • Rita Lorenzini, Francesco Milani • MHD and active control of instabilities • Giuseppe Marchiori, David Terranova • Particle, momentum and energy transport • Gianluca Spizzo, Nicola Vianello • Magnetic and fuelling optimization • Roberto Cavazzana • Program implementation support team • Samuele Dal Bello, Loris Zanotto • Data validation and scaling team • Paolo Franz, Monica Spolaore • MST “ambassador” • Brett Chapman 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  21. High current operation: optimization towards 2 MA • The 2007 and 2008 experience shows that a careful optimization of the scenario, including MHD active control, is an essential ingredient for the success of the high current operation. • 2008 was mainly dedicated to exploration of 1.5 MA, mainly driven by the new results and by the IAEA deadline • During 2009 the work on the high current operation will proceed along two synergistic main projects: • optimization of the 1.5 MA scenario • initial exploration of the current regime between 1.5 and 2 MA, where the optimization and the scenarios developed for point 1) will be used. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  22. 2 steps strategy • This 2-steps strategy acknowledges that the route towards the nominal target current of RFX-mod, 2 MA, has to be followed: • preserving machine safety, • Improving the diagnostic portfolio (Ti, B over all) • making each additional step ahead in current based on a well-optimized discharge, and • allowing for an adequate amount of time for physics and technology exploration at intermediate current (e.g., the very successful RWM and turbulence experiments are normally conducted at lower currents). • This guarantees that 2 MA will be reached in the safest and most performance-effective way. Within this framework, we expect that the achievement of a baseline 2 MA plasma, ready for full exploitation of confinement, will be an integrated goal of both the 2009 and 2010 experimental campaigns. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  23. Density control • Goal: sustainment of the high-confinement helical configuration at high density. • The strategy proposed to solve the problem consists in two steps, one short-term and one medium-term. • The first one (short term), on a short term, is based on the use of pellets to fuel the plasma core and on a series of experiments for optimizing the pre-loading of the wall. • A second project (medium term) concerns first wall lithization, to reduce recycling • Initially Li pellets will be injected into the plasma, and subsequently a Liquid Lithium Limiterwill be installed for a more uniform coverage. Collaboration in this field has been established with the ENEA laboratories in Frascati, as the technique has been already successfully applied to FTU (Mazzitelli, tomorrow). 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  24. Key science topics (more in the TF sessions) • Transport (helical) • Equilibrium and stability (helical) • Turbulence • Current Drive • Preparation for the power beam injector installation (on loan from AIST) • Collaborations and synergies with other RFP, tokamaks and stellarator 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  25. MHD active control, with significant external collaborations • A significant fraction of the experimental programme will be devoted to experiments on active feedback control of MHD stability. This program will build upon the fact that a thick shell is no longer necessary for the RFP. • The experiments will aim at optimizing existing techniques and developing new ones for the control of • resistive wall modes (RWM) and • tearing modes. • The RFX-mod coil system will also be used for projects at the forefront of MHD active stability worldwide programme and co-ordinated with the EFDA workprogramme (e.g. ITER code benchmarking, studies on mode non-rigidity and on the effect of partial coil coverage, mode locking and un-locking studies, study on non-resonant perturbations). • Moreover, an intense activity on control engineering will be realized, to develop new control algorithms and tools, which will be tested in RFX-mod. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  26. 6 sessions 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  27. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  28. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  29. Some of us are facing big challenges… We look forward of seeing you soon back ! 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  30. The end 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  31. Developments on feedback control in low-rotation plasmas • The MHD feedback control system can be on purpose “downgraded” both in power and number of coils, to study tokamak-relevant problems • The effect of reduced available power • Effects of mode non-rigidity with a reduced set of coils • Interaction between RWMs and Tearing Modes (TM) 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin 2008 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Geneva - P. Martin

  32. Developments on feedback control in low-rotation plasmas • The MHD feedback control system can be on purpose “downgraded” both in power and number of coils, to study tokamak-relevant problems • The effect of reduced available power • Effects of mode non-rigidity with a reduced set of coils • Interaction between RWMs and Tearing Modes (TM) 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin 2008 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Geneva - P. Martin

  33. Interesting times • RFX-mod is producing very good results, with reliable operation and strong integration of the various components of the team • The case for fusion relevance is now fully open • RFX team might be a world leader in MHD control • We are giving key contributions in collaboration with tokamak • We are publishing good papers • There is interest and resonance in the international community This is true because we are a well-identified team based on RFX, even when we work outside. Synergy counts. There is an extra-value in being a team, for now AND for the future, for physicists and engineers Like on a bike: to avoiding falling down we need to run… …together ! 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  34. ハハハハ- Frascati (FTU)ハハハハ- DIIIDハハハハ- EXTRAP-T2Rハハハハ- RELAXハハハハ- MSTハハハハ- ASDEXハハハハ- PPPL 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  35. Advanced RWM control and mode un-locking Active rotation of non-resonant wall-locked RWM is induced by applying complex gains (keeping the mode at the desired constant amplitude) RWM amplitude RWM phase Bolzonella, Igochine et al, PRL 08 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin 2008 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Geneva - P. Martin

  36. From the facility review report The dedicated ITER and DEMO oriented work should therefore be complemented by innovative R&D aimed at opening new options and improving present modelling by improving the theoretical understanding based on first principles, developing novel solutions in physics and technology and extending fusion physics and technology knowledge and the relevant data bases. 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin

  37. The international fusion programme is undergoing a very profound and dynamic change, mainly driven by ITER. • We have to play this game: better we do it as best as we can. • A success of RFX is a necessary condition for the survival and development of a plasma physics and engineering group in Padova with its own identity and the goal of becoming a main actor in the next generation of fusion devices (ITER, FAST, …) A vision for a strong sci & tech program required • Exploitation of RFX-mod • Innovation and creativity to enhance our contribution to tokamak main stream • Focussing on leading topics, both for RFX and collaborations: • Building a Consensus & implementing the decisions • Start NOW to build the future 2009 RFX-mod programme workshop, Padova, 20-22 January, 2009 - P. Martin