Download
animals n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ANIMALS PowerPoint Presentation

ANIMALS

251 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

ANIMALS

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. ANIMALS Chapters 25 and 26

  2. Chapter 25.1 and 25.2 • Objectives • List the characteristics that all animals share. • Differentiate between invertebrates and chordates. • Describe some features of animal body plans.

  3. Characteristics of Animals • Heterotrophic • Multi-cellular • Eukaryotic • No cell walls

  4. Types of Animals • Invertebrates – 95% of animals • Lack a backbone • Examples: Jellyfish Seastar Worm Insect

  5. Types of Animals • Chordates – 5% of animals • Characteristics: • Dorsal, hollow nerve chord • Notochord • Long supporting rod running length of body • Tail extending past anus • Pharyngeal pouches • Paired structures in throat region • Most are vertebrates (animals with backbones) • Examples: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

  6. Check-in • List the characteristics all animals have • Multicellular, heterotrophs, eukaryotes, no cell walls • What characteristic do all invertebrates share? • No backbone • What characteristics do all chordates have sometime in their life cycle? • Hollow nerve cord, notochord, postanal tail, pharyngeal pouches

  7. Levels of Organization • Cells • Tissues • Organs • Organ systems • Organism

  8. Types of Body Symmetry • Asymmetry – no symmetry • Radial symmetry – body parts extend from central point • Bilateral symmetry – two sides (mirror image) • Anterior – front • Posterior – back • Dorsal – upper • Ventral - lower

  9. Differentiation of Germ Layers • Cells of most animal embryos differentiate into: • Endoderm – innermost layer • Mesoderm – middle layer • Ectoderm – outermost layer

  10. Formation of a Body Cavity • Body cavity – fluid filled space between digestive tract and body wall • Acoelomate – no body cavity • Pseudocoelomate – body cavity partially lined with mesoderm • Coelomate – body cavity lined with mesoderm

  11. Embryological Development • Zygote – fertilized egg • Develops into blastula (hollow ball of cells) • Blastopore – single opening to outside formed as blastula folds inward • Protostome –organism in which blastopore becomes mouth • Deuterostome –blastopore becomes anus

  12. Check-in • List the levels of organization • Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ systems  Organisms • What type of symmetry do each of the following have? Radial Bilateral Asymmetry Radial

  13. Check-in Identify the sides of the animal that are labeled: dorsal ventral posterior anterior

  14. Check-in • What germ layer is the outermost layer? • Ectoderm • What germ layer makes up the linings of the digestive tract and respiratory system? • Endoderm • If an organism has a body cavity partially lined with mesoderm, what is it called? • Pseudocoelomate

  15. Check-in • What is a fertilized egg called? • Zygote • Organism in which blastopore becomes anus: • Deuterostome • What is an organism with a body cavity partially lined with mesoderm called? • Pseudocoelomate

  16. Chapter 26.1 • Objectives • Describe characteristics of invertebrate phyla.

  17. Cladogram of Nonchordate Invertebrates

  18. Phylum Porifera • “Pore-bearer” • Ex. Sponges • No tissues or organ systems • Asymmetrical • Filter feeders

  19. Phylum Cnidaria • “Nettle” or “Stinger” • Ex. Hydras, Jellyfish, Sea anemones, Corals • Cells organized into tissues • Radial symmetry • Feed by stinging prey with nematocysts, mouth gastrovascular cavity

  20. Phylum Arthropoda • Arthropods- “Jointed foot” • Ex. Insects, crustaceans, spiders • Segmented body, exoskeleton of chitin, jointed appendages

  21. Nematoda - Roundworms • Ex. pinworms • Bilateral symmetry • Tissue layers • Pseudocoelomate • Digestive system with mouth and anus • Molt (shed skin) as they grow

  22. Platyhelminthes - Flatworms • Ex. planarians, flukes, tapeworms • Bilateral symmetry • Three tissue layers • Acoelomate

  23. Annelida – Segmented worms • Ex. earthworms, leeches, bristleworms • Bilateral symmetry • Tissue layers • Coelomate

  24. Annelida Systems • Digestion- mouth and anus, pharynx • Circulation- closed system (blood contained in vessels) • Respiration- some gills, skin • Excretion- Nephridia, anus • Nervous- brain and nerve cords • Reproduction- • Sexual: (most), separate sexes, hermaphrodites

  25. Phylum Mollusca • Mollusks • Ex. Gastropods (snails), Bivalves (clams), Cephalopods (squid) • Internal or external shell • Bilateral symmetry • Tissue layers • Coelomate

  26. Phylum Echinodermata • Echinoderms- “Spiny skin” • Ex. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars • Internal skeleton • Water vascular system (tube feet) • Radial symmetry

  27. Chapter 26.2 • Objectives • Describe characteristics of chordate phyla.

  28. Cladogram of Chordates

  29. Nonvertebrate Chordates • Two invertebrate • Urochordata: tunicates • Cephalochordata: lancelets subphyla:

  30. Jawless Fishes • No true jaws or teeth • Lack vertebrae • Skeleton made of cartilage • Ex. Lampreys, hagfish

  31. Cartilaginous Fish • Skeleton made of cartilage • Paired fins • Most have tooth-like scales • Ex. Sharks, rays, skates

  32. Bony Fish • Skeleton of true bone • Paired fins, scales, gills • Swim bladder • Ex. Perch, bass, flounder

  33. Amphibians • Means “double life” • Young: live in water and breathe with gills • Adult: live on land and breathe with lungs and skin • Undergo metamorphosis • Dramatic change in body form • Moist skin with mucous glands • Lack scales and claws • Ex. Frogs, toads, newts, salamanders

  34. Amphibian Systems • Digestive/Excretory: • Developed: stomach, intestines, etc. • Nervous: • Developed: large eyesgreat sight • Circulatory: • Closed circulatory system • Three chamber heart • Reproductive: • Most lay eggs without shells in water • External Fertilization • Respiratory: • Gills when immature, lungs and skin when mature (skin must stay moist to function)

  35. Reptiles • Vertebrates with lungs • Scaly skin • Leathery shelled amniotic eggs • Ex. Lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, dinosaurs

  36. Birds • Warm-blooded • Feathers • Strong light-weight bones • Hard-shelled amniotic eggs • Two scaly legs and wings as fore-limbs • Ex. Hawk, eagle, penguin, ostrich, hummingbird, robin

  37. Mammals • Warm-blooded • Feed young with milk from mammary glands • Hair or fur • Breathe air • Four-chamber heart • Many groups of mammals- • Insect-eating, Water-dwelling, Hoofed, Gnawing, etc.

  38. Groups of Mammals • Monotremes • Egg-laying mammals • Ex. Platypus • Marsupials • Give birth to under-developed young • Young develop in the pouch of the mother • Ex. Kangaroo, koalas, possum • Placental mammals: • Give birth to young that have developed in the mother’s body • Ex. Humans, Dogs, Mice