The Renaissance The beginning of Modern Europe
The Renaissance • Renaissance," French for "rebirth," perfectly describes the intellectual and economic changes that occurred in Europe from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries. • During the era known by this name, Europe emerged from the economic stagnation of the Middle Ages and experienced a time of financial growth. Also, and perhaps most importantly, the Renaissance was an age in which artistic, social, scientific, and political thought turned in new directions. It was also the age of expansion and Discovery.
Johannes Gutenberg 1440. Mass production Production of paper Production of manuscripts. Gutenberg Bible: 185 copies. Communications revolution. Exchange of ideas Beginning of Censorship Printing Press
Homogeneous group. Study and support of the liberal arts (humanities) Classical history and literature glory Want to harmonize classicism and Christian faith. When Constantinople fell the Greek scholars fled to Italy. Spurred a revival of Greek Learning. Humanism
Art and Patronage • Italians were willing to spend a lot of money on art. • Art communicated social, political, and spiritual values. • Italian banking & international trade interests had the money. • Public art in Florence was organized and supported by guilds. Therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status!
The Artists • Relied on Patronage • Medici’s • Acquired more social status • Wanted to be seen as creative genius but was not always. • Artist not artisan • Served to princely courts • Commissioned work • Made pieces for the market
1. Realism & Expression • Expulsion fromthe Garden • Masaccio • 1427 • First nudes sinceclassical times.
2. Perspective • the illusion of depth on a flat surface; lines appear to converge at a single point known as the vanishing point. The size of objects was reduced, colors muted and detail blurred the further away the objects grew.
2. Perspective • The Trinity • Masaccio • 1427 Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! First use of linear perspective! What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.
3. Classicism • Greco-Roman influence. • Secularism. • Humanism. • Individualism free standing figures. • Symmetry/Balance The “Classical Pose”Medici “Venus” (1c)
4. Emphasis on Individualism • Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino • Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466.
Isabella d’Este – da Vinci, 1499 • 1474-1539 • “First Lady of the Italian Renaissance.” • Great patroness of the arts in Mantua. • Known during her time as “First Lady of the World!”
5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures • The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate • Leonardo da Vinci • 1469 • The figure as architecture!
Use of Light and Shadow: • Chiaroscuro (light/dark) made lighter forms seem to emerge from darker areas, thereby producing the illusion of rounded relief on a flat surface. • Sfumato or shading.
6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges Sfumato Chiaroscuro
Renaissance Florence Florentine lion:symbol of St. Mark The Wool Factoryby Mirabello Cavalori, 1570 1252 – first goldflorinsminted
Lorenzo the Magnificent Cosimo de Medici 1478 - 1521 1517 - 1574
Florence Under the Medici Medici Chapel The Medici Palace
Filippo Brunelleschi1377 - 1436 • Architect • Cuppolo of St. Mariadel Fiore
Filippo Brunelleschi • Commissioned to build the cathedral dome. • Used unique architectural concepts. • He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome. • Used ribs for support.
BRUNELLESCHI, FilippoItalian sculptor (b. 1377, Firenze, d. 1446, Firenze) • Called the ‘Father of Linear Perspective.’ It was Brunelleschi who first came up with a mathematical equation for projecting a three dimensional object on a two dimensional surface. The Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo was built by Brunelleschi between 1418 and 1428. The sculptural decoration was executed from 1428 to about 1443 by Donatello.
Dome Comparisons Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
A Contest to Decorate the Cathedral: Sacrifice of Isaac Panels Brunelleschi Ghiberti
Ghiberti – Gates of ParadiseBaptistry Door, Florence – 1425 - 1452 The Winner!
The Liberation of Sculpture • David by Donatello • 1430 • First free-form bronze since Roman times!
The Baptism of ChristVerrocchio, 1472 - 1475 Leonardo da Vinci
The Renaissance 'Individual'
Vitruvian Man • Leonardo daVinci • 1492 TheL’uomouniversale
The Renaissance “Man” • Broad knowledge about many things in different fields. • Deep knowledge/skill in one area. • Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge. • The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education.
1.Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 1512 • Artist • Sculptor • Architect • Scientist • Engineer • Inventor 1452 - 1519
Leonardo, the Artist • The Virgin of the Rocks • Leonardo daVinci • 1483-1486
Refractory Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan
The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 vertical horizontal Perspective!
Deterioration • Detail of Jesus • The Last Supper • Leonardo da Vinci • 1498
Leonardo, the Sculptor • An Equestrian Statue • 1516-1518
Leonardo, the Architect:Pages from his Notebook • Study of a central church. • 1488