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Slavery Divides the Nation

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  1. Slavery Divides the Nation U.S. History Chapter 16

  2. The Missouri Compromise • Senator Henry Clay proposed admitting Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state

  3. The Missouri Compromise • Compromise applied to lands in the Louisiana Purchase; ensured balance of free and slave states for 30 years

  4. Wilmot Proviso • Western lands added in 1848 with the Mexican Cession • Congressman David Wilmot called for a law banning slavery in any territories won from Mexico

  5. Wilmot Proviso • Southern leaders opposed the Wilmot Proviso; did NOT want slavery declared illegal in Mexican Cession

  6. Popular Sovereignty • The right of people to create their own government • 1849: California voters approved a state constitution banning slavery

  7. Free-Soil Party • Members of both the northern Democrat and Whig opposed the spread of slavery • Formed Free-Soil Party to ban slavery in the western territories

  8. Compromise of 1850 • Addition of CA to Union in 1850 as free state upset the balance of free and slave states; free states now had advantage

  9. Compromise of 1850 • Mexican Cession divided into NM and UT territories but did NOT ban slavery there

  10. Compromise of 1850 • Ended slave trade in nation’s capital • Did NOT ban slave trade between slave states • Included strict fugitive slave law

  11. Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 • Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves • Act enraged antislavery northerners who declared that they did not respect nor would they obey this law

  12. Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Novel written to show evils of slavery and injustice in Fugitive Slave Act

  13. Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Northerners became more opposed to slavery after reading the novel • Novel heightened tensions between North and South

  14. Kansas-Nebraska Act • Divided territory into two parts; created two new territories in 1854

  15. Kansas-Nebraska Act • Senator Stephen Douglas: territories would decide slavery issue by popular sovereignty • Opponents: “criminal betrayal of precious rights.”

  16. Crisis Turns Violent • Both pro and antislavery forces sent settlers to Kansas to fight for control • Border Ruffian: proslavery person who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces

  17. Bleeding Kansas • Rivalry between proslavery and antislavery settlers led to violence in Kansas in 1855 • Violent debates erupted in the Senate

  18. Abolitionist John Brown • Many northerners thought radical abolitionist Brown was a martyr: he was willing to give up his life for his beliefs. • Brown inspired other abolitionists; folk song popular with northerners

  19. Dred Scott Case • Dred Scott moved with his owner from slave to free territories, but Supreme Court decided he was not a free man • Supreme Court said Congress did not have power to outlaw slavery in any territory

  20. Dred Scott Case • White southerners were happy that slavery was legal in all territories; reversed Missouri Compromise • Supreme Court decision was condemned by free African Americans • Abolitionist Frederick Douglass

  21. Republican Party Emerges • Like Free-Soil Party, Republicansmain goal was to keep slavery out of western territories • Republicans were dissatisfied with weak stand on slavery taken by Whigs and Democrats

  22. Lincoln-Douglas Debates • Lincoln ran against Stephen Douglas for Illinois senator • Series of debates between Lincoln and Douglas focused primarily on slavery issue

  23. Lincoln-Douglas Debates • Despite losing to Douglas, Lincoln became nationally known for his antislavery stance

  24. Election of 1860 • Regional attitudes toward slavery led to the election of Lincoln to the Presidency of the United States

  25. Election of 1860 • Southern states seceded in protest, forming the Confederate States of America

  26. Civil War Begins • Confederate forces fired the first shots of the Civil War at Ft. Sumter in South Carolina • Confederate troops attacked the Union troops stationed there

  27. Review Question • 1. What was the Wilmot Proviso? • Divided a territory into two parts • Declared Congress unable to ban the slave trade between slave states • Attempted to ban slavery in territories won from Mexico

  28. Review Question • 1. What was the Wilmot Proviso? • Divided a territory into two parts • Declared Congress unable to ban the slave trade between slave states • Attempted to ban slavery in territories won from Mexico

  29. Review Question • 2. Which political party was formed in 1848 for the purpose of banning slavery in western territories? • Free-Soil • Whig • Republican

  30. Review Question • 2. Which political party was formed in 1848 for the purpose of banning slavery in western territories? • Free-Soil • Whig • Republican

  31. Review Question • 3. Who was a proslavery person who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces? • Martyr • Fugitive • Border Ruffian

  32. Review Question • 3. Who was a proslavery person who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces? • Martyr • Fugitive • Border Ruffian

  33. Review Question • 4. What compromise did Henry Clay propose for admitting Missouri to the Union? • Admit Missouri as a free state and Maine as a slave state • Admit Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state • Admit Missouri as a free state and allow slavery in all other new states

  34. Review Question • 4. What compromise did Henry Clay propose for admitting Missouri to the Union? • Admit Missouri as a free state and Maine as a slave state • Admit Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state • Admit Missouri as a free state and allow slavery in all other new states

  35. Review Question • 5. Which of the following is an example of popular sovereignty? • In 1849, CA voters approve a state constitution that bans slavery • In 1836, AR becomes a slave state because it is south of Missouri • In 1837, MI becomes a free state because it is north of Missouri

  36. Review Question • 5. Which of the following is an example of popular sovereignty? • In 1849, CA voters approve a state constitution that bans slavery • In 1836, AR becomes a slave state because it is south of Missouri • In 1837, MI becomes a free state because it is north of Missouri

  37. Review Question • 6. Which statement summarizes the effects of the Missouri Compromise? • It triggered a sharp rise in the number of free states shortly after 1848 • It helped ensure a balance of slave and free states for almost 30 years • It ensure a decrease in the number of slave states

  38. Review Question • 6. Which statement summarizes the effects of the Missouri Compromise? • It triggered a sharp rise in the number of free states shortly after 1848 • It helped ensure a balance of slave and free states for almost 30 years • It ensure a decrease in the number of slave states

  39. Review Question • 7. Someone who sacrifices his or her own life for beliefs • Martyr • Fugitive • Border Ruffian

  40. Review Question • 7. Someone who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces • Martyr • Fugitive • Border Ruffian

  41. Review Question • 8. This divided a territory into two parts. • Compromise of 1850 • Kansas-Nebraska Act • Fugitive Slave Act

  42. Review Question • 8. This divided a territory into two parts. • Compromise of 1850 • Kansas-Nebraska Act • Fugitive Slave Act

  43. Review Question • 9. Which of the following is NOT among the terms of the Compromise of 1850? • Northerners are required to help return runaway slaves to owners • Slavery is banned in New Mexico and Utah • The slave trade is outlawed in Washington, D.C.

  44. Review Question • 9. Which of the following is NOT among the terms of the Compromise of 1850? • Northerners are required to help return runaway slaves to owners • Slavery is banned in New Mexico and Utah • The slave trade is outlawed in Washington, D.C.

  45. Review Question • 10. What effect did Uncle Tom’s Cabin have on public opinion? • Northerners, in general, became more opposed to slavery • Northerners, in general, became more sympathetic toward slave owners • Americans, in general, lost interest in the slavery issue

  46. Review Question • 10. What effect did Uncle Tom’s Cabin have on public opinion? • Northerners, in general, became more opposed to slavery • Northerners, in general, became more sympathetic toward slave owners • Americans, in general, lost interest in the slavery issue

  47. Review Question • 11. Which of these generalizations BEST describes the effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin? • The novel helped northerners understand why southerners supported slavery • The novel further heightened tensions between the North and the South • The novel eased tensions between the North and South

  48. Review Question • 11. Which of these generalizations BEST describes the effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin? • The novel helped northerners understand why southerners supported slavery • The novel further heightened tensions between the North and the South • The novel eased tensions between the North and South

  49. Review Question • 12. Which of the following can be said of Abraham Lincoln? • His support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act made him a Republican leader • His antislavery speeches won him a following in both the North and the South • His debates with Stephen Douglas won him fame as an opponent of slavery

  50. Review Question • 12. Which of the following can be said of Abraham Lincoln? • His support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act made him a Republican leader • His antislavery speeches won him a following in both the North and the South • His debates with Stephen Douglas won him fame as an opponent of slavery