Implementing a One-to-One Computing Program An Examination of the issues
Introductions Jeffrey McNutt Director of Technology Plainwell Community Schools email@example.com
Some Guiding Questions • Why do you want to implement a 1:1 program? • What does the research tell us about 1:1? • How does a 1:1 program impact teachers and students • What role does administration play in the implementation process?
What is one-to-one computing? • The idea that all students have individual access to a computing device. One-to-one computing encompasses not only the device, but access to the internet as well.
Why implement a 1:1 program? Common reasons given for 1:1 • Develop 21st century skills • Increase student achievement • Minimize the digital divide • Economic competiveness • Changing the nature of education • Prepare students for college and career • Prepare students to work in a global economy
Federal pressures “All learners will have engaging and empowering learning experiences both in and out of school that prepare them to be active, creative, knowledgeable, and ethical participants in our globally networked society.” “All students and educators will have access to a comprehensive infrastructure for learning when and where they need it.” (National Ed Tech Plan, 2010)
State pressure • Online learning is booming in the public schools • Lifting of the cap on charters, including virtual charters
21st Century Skills • Students collaborate more • Students are better problem solvers • Improve research and analysis skills • Transfer knowledge across disciplines • Teachers collaborate more • Teachers use more project-based learning techniques
The truth about 1:1 and test scores One-to-one does not significantly increase standardized test scores There is one exception to this. Writing scores have been shown to increase in a statistically significant way.
History of 1:1The short version The history of 1:1 computing is tied to the history of educational technology of the last 100 years.
Motion Pictures “I believe that the motion picture is destined to revolutionize our educational system and that in a few years it will supplant largely, if not entirely, the use of textbooks.” Thomas Edison, 1922
Radio “The central and dominant aim of education by radio is to bring the world to the classroom, to make universally available the services of the finest teachers, the inspiration of the greatest leaders…and unfolding world events which through the radio may come as a vibrant and challenging textbook of the air.” Radio: The Assistant Teacher,by Benjamin Darrow
The Teaching Machine • "I have no doubt at all that programmed instruction based on operant principles will take over education.“ B.F. Skinner • The 1950s brought the Teaching Machine. It was heralded as a more efficient means of teaching children.
Educational Television “Samoan children are learning twice as fast as they once did, and retaining what they learn…[The] one requirement for a good and universal education is an inexpensive and readily available means of teaching children…Samoa has met this problem through educational television.” President Lyndon Johnson, 1968
1977 – the introduction of the Apple II • 1985 – Apple Classrooms of tomorrow project • 1990s – Anywhere Anytime Laptop project, Microsoft and Toshiba • 2000 – Maine Learning Technology Initiative, Texas Immersion project, Henrico Count, VA
The Potential of 1:1 With 1:1 students: • Have access to a wider array of resources • Can communicate with peers and teachers • Can collaborate on work • Have increased problem solving opportunities • Have increased opportunities for developing higher level critical thinking skills • Have access to learning outside the traditional school day
What impacts the successful implementation of a 1:1 program • Merely having access to technology doesn’t guarantee integration into the classroom • Teacher attitudes and beliefs about the role of technology in education directly affects adoption • School culture and climate as well as school tradition • Pedagogical beliefs and practices • Teacher skill level with the technology • Quality professional development
Teacher’s adoption of technology is related to a number of factors • Their attitudes and beliefs about the role of technology in the learning process • Ease of access • Quality and timeliness of technology support • School culture • Their fears about technology • Quality and amount of Professional Development
Teacher impacts The amount of Professional Development teachers receive directly affects the level of adoption and use
Teacher impacts • When teachers spent significant amounts of time in PD (9 or more hours) they felt better prepared to use it with students • PD amount directly affects their attitudes and beliefs. • When they perceived that PD was aligned with curriculum content, they were more likely to integrate it into lessons
PD Structure is vitally important • The structure and content of the PD must go beyond instruction on how to use the equipment. • For wide spread adoption teachers must believe that technology can support student learning • PD that addresses how to improve instruction and provides curricular resources tied to content have the best chance of making significant changes.
Quantity of PD is also a factor • The structure and content of the PD must go beyond instruction on how to use the equipment. Learning how to use the equipment is important since technology must be used before it can be integrated • For wide spread adoption teachers must believe that technology can support student learning
PD that addresses how to improve instruction and provides curricular resources that are tied to content have the best chance of making significant changes. • 21 Things for the 21st Century Educator is a great resource to use when building a PD plan. http://www.21things4teachers.net/
Stages of Instructional Evolution Stage 1: Entry • Teachers use technology for introductory tasks, learning how to email, creating documents, etc. • Teachers struggle with classroom management, react to problems during this stage
Stage 2: Adoption • Teachers adapt tools to existing curricular and pedagogical practices • Begin to use computers to deliver some instruction, but do so in the traditional manner • Teachers use computes to conduct some research for classroom purposes • Teachers begin to anticipate problems and develop strategies to solve them
Stage 3: Adaptation • Lecture, recitation and seat work remain dominate • Traditional teacher-led instructional practices still prevail but student computer use for in-class projects and homework • Teachers begin using the technology to manage the classroom, recording grades, collection of work, general record keeping • Teachers begin to focus more on the effects of their teaching
Stage 4: Appropriation • Technology is integrated into the curriculum regularly • Personal mastery of the technology is achieved evidenced by more of a change of attitude • The teacher comes to understand technology and its use • The technology is used as a tool. It has become a way of life in the classroom
Stage 5: Invention • Project-based approaches become common place and computers are used across disciplines • Teachers experiment with new instructional patterns and ways of relating • Team teaching • Project-based instruction occurs regularly • Move toward the teacher as a facilitator of learning instead of the dispenser of learning
The situated Professional Development model • Situate the teachers into an environment similar to their classroom environment and relate it to things they are interested in; e.g. Intel training, or creating a project that they complete that helps them develop project-based lessons. • Teachers are active learners and construct meaning from their work
Situated PD • Teachers need to be empowered to learn • Professional Development should be situated into classroom practice • Trainers should treat teachers as they expect teachers to treat students This helps create an authentic learning environment and offers teachers opportunities and time to reflect on what they have learned
The importance of district and building administration • Define the PD opportunities for teachers • Define the culture o f the building • Define expectations of use • Create an environment where it is OK to try something new and have it possibly fail • Leadership in 1:1 is an essential support
Leadership • Create and administer an informed and consistent set of policies. • Leaders need to be as prepared for 1:1 as teachers and must regularly meet with stakeholders to develop logistical plans for the implementation • Create opportunities for collaborative peer support
The importance of Technical Support • Timely support is an essential need. • A well developed and capable infrastructure needs to be in place • Adequate wireless coverage is essential • Resources need to be available • As teachers become more sophisticated in their use of the technology the level of support needed also becomes more advanced
Technical Support • Instructional support must be available to teachers • A good technical infrastructure and human infrastructure is needed for a successful implementation.
Obstacles • Lack of quality professional development • Time. Time to practice. Time to collaborate. Time to redesign materials for use in a 1:1 environment • Lack of instructional resources • No leadership support or expectations
Recommendations • Begin with the end in mind. • Use backwards planning. • Start planning early. • Plan the rollout as well as necessary PD • Plan for adequate technical support during and after the rollout. Consider a plan to use student technical expertise for support.
Recommendations • Promote a collaborative environment where teachers are encouraged to ask peers and students questions. • Focus initial PD on using new tools and processes. However, teacher training should also include strategies for curriculum integration. • As soon as feasible, incorporate training on developing project-based and collaborative student work
Recommendations • If professional development includes training on monitoring software, train teachers to use the software for formative assessment. • Ask teachers what professional development they need, but realize early concerns will be on managing classrooms. School administrators may need to push curriculum integration training
Recommendations • Establish expectations through student-parent orientations and acceptable use policies • Teachers and administrators should carefully consider the academic ramifications of punitive actions before establishing penalties; e.g. suspending privileges. • Teachers, develop a good classroom management plan.
Questions? http://www.plainwellschools.org Click on the following links: Our District District Departments Technology at PCS