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PHOTOSYNTHESIS

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS

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  1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Using Light to Make Food

  2. Photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on earth because: • It provides food for virtually all organisms

  3. Why study Photosynthesis? • Impact on agriculture – making photosynthesis more efficient • Impact on energy production • Control pollution • Electronics • Medicine

  4. BIG PICTURE: Light energyis used to make sugarand other food molecules from carbon dioxideandwater

  5. Chemical Reaction sunlight • 6 H2O + 6 CO2 ----------> C6H12O6+ 6 O2 Photosynthesis: An Overview of Photosynthesis(click)

  6. Photosynthetic Plants Forests (land) Kelp (ocean) Diatoms (microscopic)

  7. Leaf Structure

  8. Is the opening carbon dioxide,oxygen. And water in/out 1. Stoma in leaf lower epidermis Stomata (pl.)

  9. Leaf Cross section 2. Upper Epidermis 4. Mesophyll-cells containing chloroplasts 3. Lower epidermis Covers and protects see stoma –in lower epidermis only

  10. 4. Mesophyll • = Palisade Layer + Spongy Layer

  11. 5. Cuticle Waxy, waterproof coating (to retain H2O)

  12. 6. Palisade Layer • cylindrical cells, vertically oriented, closely packed

  13. 7. Spongy Layer • cells are irregular in shape and loosely packed O2 ,CO2, H20 vapor go in/out

  14. 8. Guard Cells Control Stomata • Full guard cells(turgid) opens the stoma. • Flaccid (lost water) guard cells, the stoma closes. • ANIMATION: Stoma • What causes them to open?What goes into the stomata?

  15. 9. Plant Vein: Xylem + Phloem Xylem-(blue) carries water Phloem (thicker cell wall)-(yellow)carries food

  16. 10: Air Space Gas Flow Through Leaf

  17. Guard Cells Animations • LabBench (guard cell animation) • Another animation of opening and closing of guard cells http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandsonc/bio111/animations/0021.swf (really nice)

  18. Water Movement • LINK: http://www.sciencemag.org/sciext/vis2005/show/transpiration.swf

  19. Elodea Cell 400X

  20. Leaf cross section

  21. Photosynthesis in Elodea Lab See oxygen bubbles coming from the Elodea What conditions are best?

  22. Elodea Bubbles Movie • sLowlife Exhibit

  23. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs • Living things need energy to survive. • This energy comes from food. The energy in most food comes from the sun. • Where do plants get the energy they need to produce food?

  24. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs • Autotrophs and Heterotrophs • Plants and some other types of organisms are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.

  25. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs • Organisms, such as plants, which make their own food, are called autotrophs. • Organisms, such as animals, that must obtain energy from the foods they consume are heterotrophs.

  26. Chemical Energy and ATP • Chemical Energy and ATP • Energy comes in many forms including light, heat, and electricity. • Energy can be stored in chemical compounds, too.

  27. Organisms that make their own food are called…. • autotrophs. • heterotrophs. • decomposers. • consumers.

  28. 8-1 • Organisms that make their own food are called • autotrophs. • heterotrophs. • decomposers. • consumers.

  29. Most autotrophs obtain their energy from….. • chemicals in the environment. • sunlight. • carbon dioxide in the air. • other producers.

  30. 8-1 • Most autotrophs obtain their energy from • chemicals in the environment. • sunlight. • carbon dioxide in the air. • other producers.

  31. Chemical Energy and ATP • An important chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy is adenosine triphosphate, abbreviated ATP. • ATP is used by all types of cells as their basic energy source.

  32. Chemical Energy and ATP • ATP consists of: • adenine • ribose (a 5-carbon sugar) • 3 phosphate groups Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups ATP

  33. Chemical Energy and ATP • The three phosphate groups are the key to ATP's ability to store and release energy.

  34. Chemical Energy and ATP • Storing Energy • ADP has two phosphate groups instead of three. • A cell can store small amounts of energy by adding a phosphate group to ADP. ATP ADP Energy + Energy Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Fullycharged battery Partiallycharged battery

  35. Chemical Energy and ATP • Releasing Energy • Energy stored in ATP is released by breaking the chemical bond between the second and third phosphates. 2 Phosphate groups P ADP

  36. How is energy released from ATP? • A phosphate is added. • An adenine is added. • A phosphate is removed. • A ribose is removed

  37. 8-1 • How is energy released from ATP? • A phosphate is added. • An adenine is added. • A phosphate is removed. • A ribose is removed.

  38. Chemical Energy and ATP • What is the role of ATP in cellular activities?

  39. Chemical Energy and ATP The energy from ATP is needed for many cellular activities, including active transport across cell membranes, protein synthesis and muscle contraction. ATP’s characteristics make it exceptionally useful as the basic energy source of all cells.

  40. Using Biochemical Energy • Using Biochemical Energy • Most cells have only a small amount of ATP, because it is not a good way to store large amounts of energy. • Cells can regenerate ATP from ADP as needed by using the energy in foods like glucose.

  41. How is it possible for most cells to function with only a small amount of ATP? • Cells do not require ATP for energy. • ATP can be quickly regenerated from ADP and P. • Cells use very small amounts of energy. • ATP stores large amounts of energy.

  42. 8-1 • How is it possible for most cells to function with only a small amount of ATP? • Cells do not require ATP for energy. • ATP can be quickly regenerated from ADP and P. • Cells use very small amounts of energy. • ATP stores large amounts of energy.

  43. Compared to the energy stored in a molecule of glucose, ATP stores • much more energy. • much less energy. • about the same amount of energy. • more energy sometimes and less at others.

  44. 8-1 • Compared to the energy stored in a molecule of glucose, ATP stores • much more energy. • much less energy. • about the same amount of energy. • more energy sometimes and less at others.

  45. REVIEW • Let’s review section 8.1

  46. Organisms that make their own food are called…. • autotrophs. • heterotrophs. • decomposers. • consumers.

  47. Most autotrophs obtain their energy from….. • chemicals in the environment. • sunlight. • carbon dioxide in the air. • other producers.

  48. How is energy released from ATP?…. • A phosphate is added. • An adenine is added. • A phosphate is removed. • A ribose is removed

  49. How is it possible for most cells to function with only a small amount of ATP? • Cells do not require ATP for energy. • ATP can be quickly regenerated from ADP and P. • Cells use very small amounts of energy. • ATP stores large amounts of energy.