Employee and Labor Relations PHR 20% - SPHR 14%
Anti-union Weapons • Conspiracy Doctrine • Court Injunctions • Yellow-Dog Contracts • Antitrust Statutes
Federal Anti-Injunction Act (Norris-LaGuardia) • Encouraged formation of labor unions • Neutralized power between employee & employers • Limited courts power to intervene
Threats to Collective Bargaining • Industrial Espionage • Attacks on Union Leaders • Stikebreaking • Company Unions
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) • Employee rights • Unfair labor practices • NLRB
Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley) • Unfair labor practices by unions • Rights of employees as individuals • Rights of employers • National emergency strikes
Labor Management Reporting & Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin) • A bill of rights for union members • Reports to the Secretary of Labor • Union trusteeships • Conduct of union elections • Financial safeguards
Union Representation of Employees
Union Organizations • local union • national or international union • federation of unions
AFL-CIO Represents approximately 12.2 million workers
Change to Win Left AFL-CIO because of dissatisfaction with the union.
National Labor Relations Board To protect the rights of employees, employers, unions, and the general public.
Organizing a Union • What is the procedure for organizing a union? • What is the procedure for decertification?
Union Security • Closed shop • Union shop • Agency shop • Maintenance of membership • Dues check-off
Discussion Question: The "right-to-work" issue resulting from section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley Act has created an ongoing debate. What are the arguments for and against the "right-to-work" clause?
Employer Unfair Labor Practices
Unfair Labor Practices Many of the unfair labor practice charges submitted to the NLRB arise from improper campaign activities. What are some examples of unfair labor practices?
Unlawful Support of Labor Unions What would be considered comprise unlawful support of a labor organization?
Union Unfair Labor Practices, Strikes, and Boycotts
Discussion Question: What restrictions are placed on unions and why is there a need to restrict the activities of labor unions?
Good-faith Bargaining Both parties required to engage in good-faith bargaining, or they will be guilty of an unfair labor practice.
Strike When a group of employees refuse to work, exerting strong economic pressure against the company.
Discussion Question: What are the issues that ought to be considered by each side before a strike or lockout is declared?
Strike Preparation What should an employer do to prepare for a strike?
Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining consists of management and union representatives coming together to reach an agreement that will be acceptable to their constituents.
Bargaining Issues & Concepts Taft-Hartley Act requires that union and management negotiate on “wages, hours and other terms and conditions of employment.”
The Labor Agreement Includes major bargaining issues.
Bargaining Structures Most labor agreements have been negotiated between a single union and a single employer. What are the four kinds of bargaining structures?
Bargaining Process • Opening presentation of demands • Analyzing the demands • Compromise • Informal settlement and ratification
Discussion Question: Collective bargaining is almost always a distributive bargaining strategy. Is it possible for an integrative bargaining strategy to be used? What conditions would have to exist, and what would be the probable long-term effect?
Preferred by union Acceptable to ER ER tolerance limit Acceptable to union Union tolerance limit Preferred by ER Bargaining Zone Employer Pay Increase Union
Concession Bargaining Example: Chrysler Corporation in 1980
Good Faith Requirements Both parties are required to have open minds and a sincere desire to reach an agreement.
National Emergency Strikes The president of the US can apply for an injunction to restrain a strike when the strike imperils national health & safety
Maintaining Nonunion Status
Why People Join Unions For most workers, the decision to join a union rests on two primary issues: • Economic advantages • The elimination of unfair conditions
Why People Don’t Join Unions • Professionals join a professional association rather than a trade union. • Disagree with goals and activities unions • Some identify with management
Maintaining Nonunion Status The two most effective strategies for maintaining nonunion status: • To improve workers’ attitudes toward employer. • Decrease their interest in the union.
Grievance Systems Grievance procedures are needed to protect employees from inconsistent and unfair treatment.
Discussion Question: Why do organizations need both grievance and discipline procedures? What is the purpose of each?
Discussion Question: What are the typical grievance procedures found in union and nonunion companies?
Grievance Process for Small Company Union Representatives Company Representatives Arbitration Step 3 Plant mgr & industrial relations mgr Chief plant steward Step 2 Union steward & employee Step 1 Supervisor
Union Representatives Company Representatives Step 5 Arbitration International union rep Step 4 Corporate officers Plant grievance committee Step 3 Industrial relations mgr Business agent Step 2 Superintendent Union steward & EE Step 1 Supervisor Grievance Process for Large Company