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Chapter 12: Services

Chapter 12: Services

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Chapter 12: Services

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  1. Chapter 12: Services Key Issue 1: Where did services originate? Key Issue 2: Why are consumer services distributed in a regular pattern? Key Issue 3: Why do business services locate in large settlements? Key Issue 4: Why do services cluster downtown?

  2. Services • Service = any activity that fulfills a human want or need • Services are located in settlements • Settlement- a permanent collection of buildings, where people reside, work, and obtain services. • Location of services is important for profitability • Affluent regions tend to offer more services • Local diversity is evident in the provision of services

  3. Key Issue 1: Where did services originate? • Three types of services • Consumer services • About 44 percent of all jobs in the United States • Retail services- provide goods for sale to consumers. • Personal services- provide for the well-being, health, and personal improvement of individual consumers.

  4. Business services • About 24 percent of all jobs in the United States • Public services • About 17 percent of all jobs in the United States • In the United States, all employment growth has occurred in the services sector

  5. Percentage of GDP from Services, 2005 Figure 12-1

  6. Employment Change in the United States by Sector Figure 12-2

  7. The Largest Urban Areas

  8. Percent of Population Living in Urban Areas

  9. Percent Urban by Region

  10. Percentage of GDP From Services

  11. Consumer Services

  12. U.S. Employment Sectors

  13. Hierarchy of World Cities London, New York, and Tokyo are the dominant world cities in the global economy. Other major and secondary world cities play lesser roles.

  14. Business-Service Cities in the U.S. Below the world cities in the hierarchy of U.S. cities are command and control centers, specialized producer-service centers, and dependent centers.

  15. Economic Base of U.S. Cities Cities that have a high proportion of their labor force engaged in the specified economic activity shown.

  16. Services in early rural settlements • Early consumer services met societal needs • Examples = burial of the dead, religious centers, manufacturing centers • Early public services probably followed religious activities • Early business services to distribute and store food

  17. Services in early urban settlements • Services in ancient cities • Earliest urban settlements (e.g., Ur), Athens, Rome • Services in medieval cities • Largest settlements were in Asia • European cities developed with feudalism

  18. Where Are Contemporary Services Located? • Services in rural settlements • Half of the world’s population lives in rural settlements • Two types • Clustered rural settlements- settlements where a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings. Ex. Circular rural settlements, linear or “long-lot” settlements.Circular or linear • Clustered settlements in Colonial America

  19. Dispersed rural settlements- characteristics of the contemporary N. American rural landscape. Settlements in which farmers living on individual farms are isolated from neighbors. Common in Mid-Atlantic and Midwest.In the United States • In Great Britain • Enclosure movement- to improve ag production, Great Britain transformed the rural landscape by consolidating individually owned strips of land into single, large farms. Sometimes the land was taken by force.

  20. Rural Settlement Patterns Figure 12-10

  21. Services in urban settlements • Differences between urban and rural settlements • Large size • High density • Social heterogeneity • Increasing percentage of people in cities • Increasing number of people in cities

  22. Percentage of Population Living in Urban Settlements Figure 12-14

  23. Urban Settlements With Populations of at Least 3 Million Figure 12-15

  24. Key Issue 2: Why are consumer services distributed in a regular pattern? • Central place theory • First proposed by Walter Christaller (1930s) • Central place theory- a geographic concept that seeks to explain how services are distributed and why a regular pattern of settlements exists. Proposed by Walter Christaller in the 1930s. Christaller’s theory states that cities and services have a hierarchical setup. That is that the largest cities have the most services with the largest range, and their range overlaps those of smaller settlements which are spaced at even intervals between the mega-cities

  25. Characteristics • Market area- hinterland; the area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted. Represented by hexagons, because they are relatively uniform and do not overlap or gap when nested together. • Range- the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. Ranges are farther for certain services like concerts or sporting events, and they are shorter for everyday services like groceries. Not measured just in absolute distance, but also the amount of time it takes one to arrive, given certain traffic conditions. • Threshold- the minimum number of people needed to support the service. Every enterprise has a minimum number of customers required to generate enough sales to make a profit. Once the range of a service has been calculated, a provider must ensure that enough individuals are within that range to meet the service’s threshold.

  26. Market Areas as Hexagons Hexagons are often used to delineate market areas because they are a compromise between circles, which have edges equidistant from the center but leave gaps, and squares, which don’t leave gaps but whose edges are not equidistant from the center.

  27. Optimal Location (for Pizza Shop) The optimal location for a pizza delivery shop with seven potential customers in a linear settlement (top) and with 99 families in apartment buildings (bottom).

  28. Market Area, Range and Threshold for Department Stores in Dayton Ohio

  29. Supermarket and Convenience Store Market Areas Market area, range, and threshold for Kroger supermarkets (left) and UDF convenience stores in Dayton, Ohio. Supermarkets have much larger areas and ranges than convenience stores.

  30. Market Areas, Range, and Threshold for Kroger Supermarkets Figure 12-18

  31. Central Place Theory Market areas are arranged into a regular pattern according to central place theory, with larger settlements fewer and further apart.

  32. Commercial Centers - Fresno, Venice, New York Industrial Cities - Manchester, Detroit, Los Angeles Primary Resources - Scotia, Minas Gerais, Nevada City Resort Cities - Santa Barbara, Las Vegas, Marseille Government / Religious Centers - Monterey, D.C., Brasilia Education Centers - Palo Alto, Berkeley

  33. “Daily Urban Systems” Figure 12-16

  34. Distribution of Consumer Services Central place theory Market area of a service Size of market area Market area analysis Profitability of a location Optimal location within a market Hierarchy of services and settlements Nesting of services and settlements Rank-size distribution of settlements

  35. Market Areas as Hexagons Hexagons are often used to delineate market areas because they are a compromise between circles, which have edges equidistant from the center but leave gaps, and squares, which don’t leave gaps but whose edges are not equidistant from the center.