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ch 7 section ii the rise of russia pages 158 163 n.
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(Ch. 7) Section II: The Rise of Russia (Pages 158-163) PowerPoint Presentation
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(Ch. 7) Section II: The Rise of Russia (Pages 158-163)

(Ch. 7) Section II: The Rise of Russia (Pages 158-163)

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(Ch. 7) Section II: The Rise of Russia (Pages 158-163)

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  1. This section is about: The formation of Russia, including the influences of Byzantium and the conquering Mongols. The early founding of the cities of Kiev and Moscow. (Ch. 7) Section II: The Rise of Russia(Pages 158-163) K

  2. The Eastern Hemisphere The Ural Mts. Russia’s a huge place today (Europe and Asia).

  3. Russia is divided into 3 large areas 1 The tundra (frozen area without trees) 2 Forests Steppes (great plains with few trees) K

  4. Russia also has many good rivers which are useful for trade and travel -such as: • The Moscow • The Volga • The Dnieper K

  5. Varangians and Russians(2 peoples moved into Russia at this time) 4 • Slavs – from eastern Europe. • Vikings (Varangians) sailors, merchants, and traders who used the rivers to trade with Arabs and Byzantines. • One of the trading centers was at Kiev – where the Slavs and Vikings cultures merged. • They became the first Russians. • Kiev became the first capital city (879-1169). They were very influenced by the Byzantines. 3 K

  6. The Byzantine influence in Russia: • Byzantines sent missionaries to Kiev and it became an Eastern Orthodox Christian city. • Princess Olga and later her grandson Prince Vladimir fell in love with the style of the church and ordered everyone to convert (in 990 all Kiev citizens were baptized in the Dnieper River). • At that point, the church and the government were closely connected……. K

  7. The Byzantines had a huge impact on the culture of Russia. • Russian rulers even began to think they were the heirs to the Byzantine Empire. • They used the Cyrillic alphabet. • The adopted Byzantine art, architecture, and music. • Their churches were even built in a Byzantine style “onion dome.” K

  8. St. Basil’s Cathedral K

  9. Vladimir died and his son Yaroslav continued changing Kiev • He put down written laws. • He supported the arts. • He translated Greek works into Russian. • He arranged marriages with other royal families in Europe. • Increased Kiev’s control from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea (that’s a lot). K

  10. After Yaroslav died, his sons fought for power • In 1203, Kiev was destroyed. • In 1204, Constantinople was destroyed. • Trade was affected • Kiev’s northern territory was attacked by German knights. • And, then, the Mongol invaders came from central Asia. • (It’s not sounding too good for Kiev) K

  11. Lived north of china Live in small group (herders) They were an average group until… Genghis Khan (“universal ruler”) took control. Even after he died, his son’s carried on his conquests of new lands. The Mongols K

  12. The Mongols showed up in Russia about 1223 • Their first couple of attacks were unsuccessful. • In 1237, they attacked at a time the Russians were not prepared. • The Mongols burned 14 cities in 1 month. • In 1240, they destroyed Kiev and slaughtered their people. • They kept going – even into Europe (Poland. Hungary, the Balkans). • They controlled/ruled Russia for about 200 years. K

  13. The Mongols were : fierce warriors- but fair rulers 5 • The Mongols selected the Russian princes (who did have to pay them tribute). • The Mongols pretty much left them alone – and let the Russians keep their own laws/customs/religion. • Let the Russian Orthodox Church grow (they separated from the Eastern Orthodox Church and even elected their own bishop. • Donations to the church made it one of the biggest landowners in Russia. • Built roads • Improved communication 6 K

  14. But (some bad Mongol things) 7 • But – they did keep Russia isolated from Europe and their advances in arts and sciences of the time. • The gap between rich and poor grew. • The boyars gained a lot more wealth and power. • Peasants paid heavy taxes and fell deeply into debt. • They ended up working the land they lost to the boyars. • Isolated women (a Mongol custom). By 1200, men were completely in charge of women in every way 8 K

  15. And, then… Moscow 9 • In 1100, it was just a small town, but it was near a river and trade routes. • It became a religious center and then also the political center of Russia. • The Mongols pretty much left Moscow alone (the Mongols trusted them because they paid their taxes). • The Russian Orthodox Church also often was on the side of the princes of Moscow. K

  16. In 1300, Moscow replaced Kiev as the “center” of Russia • Mongol leaders were becoming weaker. • The princes of Moscow were becoming stronger. • And, Grand Prince Ivan III was going to lead Moscow to greatness (we call him “Ivan the Great”) • He ruled Russia from 1462-1505 and united Russia into the largest state at the time. • He’s know as the first Czar of Russia (king) • The name comes from Caesar – also sometimes tsar K

  17. Ivan the Great used the Byzantine Empire to his advantage 10 • He married the niece of the last Byzantine emperor (Sophia). • He used a symbol of the Byzantine Empire (a two headed eagle). • He adopted Byzantine court rituals. • He issued a code of laws. • Some of his people “suggested” that Moscow was “the third Rome” (Rome, Constantinople, and Moscow). • So: Moscow must have been the one true seat of the Eastern Orthodox faith – and the Roman Empire. K

  18. Ivan the Great’s Grandson (Ivan IV)… • Crowned himself czar when he was 17. • He started out doing some decent things. • But when his wife died, he became “unstable.” • That’s why he’s called “Ivan the Terrible.” K (His father died when he was 3 and his mom was murdered by boyars, who ruled the country until Ivan was 17 – when he took over)

  19. 11 • had times of great rage. • distrusted everyone. • crushed all opposition (real or imaginary). • created a group of enforcers – dressed in black robes / rode black horses. • killed many boyars. • destroyed entire towns he felt he couldn’t trust. • got so mad once, he even killed his oldest son. • After Ivan the Terrible died – Russia moved into a period known as the “Time of Troubles.” The Russian Tsars K The nobles / upper class

  20. K

  21. Make sure page "K" is completed K