Heat Treatments-Past, Present and Future Jerry W. Heaps General Mills
Heat Treatments-Past, Present and Future • 1950’s On-Chemists and Toxicologists Ruled, Organochlorines and Organophosphates Dominate • Chemicals Cheaper Than True Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Last 20 Years- Moved Away, Why?
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • Insecticides Not Target Insect Specific • 1984- Deregulation of Liquid Fumigants Due to Toxic Residues in Food? • Insect Resistance Due to Over Reliance • “Elimination Legislation” • Forced to Develop True IPM
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • Using Heat to Kill Insects Not New • 1200 BC Chinese Anti- Locust Officers • 1901, 54 dC/30 hours Noted in a Food Plant to Kill Insects; Dean (1911) followed up • Mellanby (1932) Made Reference
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future d. 1935, Pepper & Strand Published USDA Bulletin “Use of Superheating as a Control Method for Cereal Mill Insects” e. 1950, Cotton Published: “Pests of Stored Grain” Noting That Heat Works f. 1987, Forbes & Ebeling Patented “Thermal Process Eradication”
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • Within Our Industry- Last 40 Years, Heat a Novelty • Pioneers – Tom Imholte and Ken Sheppard • MeBr, Vapona, EDB- Still Available and Cheap • 1985 Nabisco Cream of Wheat
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future World Drastically Changed in 1987! • Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer • Amended in 1992 in Copenhagen • Phase Out Class 1 Ozone Depletors of Which MeBr was Classified • Race and Debate Was ON!
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future 1992- Move to Cancel Vapona’s Food Additive Tolerance (Still Legal in 2003) • 1993- Mississippi River Flooded ConAgra Mills Near the River • Heat Used to “Dry” Out Mills and Observed to Kill Insects • Word of Mouth- AOM Food Protection Committee
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • 1994- Kansas State “Demonstration” Heat Up • Heat It and They Will Come! • 1994- Copesan and Univ. of NE – 120-125 dF, 20-30% RH for 30 min. Lower Limits to Kill RFB, GR and Whse, Beetles
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • Ralston, Pillsbury, General Mills, Quaker Oats, Kraft, ConAgra Began to Use Heat More • Non-Scientific Drive to Use Heat Better, Quicker and Cheaper • AOM Published Many Articles
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • Still Many Nagging Questions? • How Hot, How Long? • I’ll Cause Building/Equipment Damage? • Store Product Insect Efficacy? • Heat Does Not Work? • Chemicals Still Available and Will Be?
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future f. Costs Too Much? Takes Too Long? g. What Type of Heaters and Energy Source? h. What Energy Source to Use? i. Cannot Use Heat in Our Plant?
Heat Treatments- Past, present and Future • 1996- Canada Aggressively Works on Alternatives; Patented Process by Dave Muller- Insect Limited in Indianapolis Looks Promising • Heat (90 dF), CO2 (2-5%) and PH3 (85 ppm) are Targets • Can Manage PH3 Corrosion Risks in Structures
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • Turning Point in Late ’90’s- Dr. Subi Appointed at Kansas State • Real Scientists and Research Now Done on Heat • Trench Work Confirmed by Science • Drs. Subi, Arthur, Eustace, Dowdy, Menon and Roesili Begin to Make Order From Chaos
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • Answers to Questions Become Clear • Heater Requirements Based on Heated Area and Equipment Therein • Insect Counts Before and After • Role of Relative Humidity • Costs of ALL Aspects of a Heat Treatment
Heat Treatments- Past, present and Future e. Integrating True IPM to Minimize Re-Infestation f. Heat, CO2 and Diatomaceous Earth ( Dr. Dowdy) g. Heat and Conventional Insecticides (Dr. Arthur)
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • August 1999, 2000 and 2001- Three Very Successful Heat Treatment Workshops at K-State With Simultaneous Demonstration Heat Treatments of Pilot Mills • Attendants Preached the Gospel of Heat and Took Home Valuable Notebooks of Information on Heat! It Does Work and You Can Do It!
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • Where Are We Today? • Key Heat Data Available: • Effects of Variable Temperatures on RFB Life Stages • Effects of Constant Temperatures • Acclimation? No, Not If Hot Enough, Long Enough
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future 4. Relative Humidity? Not Critical If Hot Enough 5. Wheat and Flour Will Insulate and Protect 6. Monitor Insect Population Before and After as “Rebounds” Do Occur 7. Pheromone Traps Not Bothered (RFB & CFB Lures Decrease Effectiveness 40% ), Glue OK
Heat Treatments- Past Present and Future 8. Sanitation Very Important 9. Temperature Ranges for Efficacy- Species and LIFE Stage Specific: RFB Pupae>Older Larvae>Adults>Young Larvae>Eggs
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future • Heat Future? Many Variables Will Decide Its Fate! • Depends on Washington, DC, State and Local Legislation • Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 • Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemptions • Phosphine Outcome
Heat Treatments- Past, present and Future 5. Dow Profume- Sulfuryl Fluoride Labeling 6. Other Fumigants or Insecticides 7. Less Active Ingredient 8. True IPM- Environmental Manipulation, Vacuum, Traps, Baits 9. Prescription Pest Control- Any and ALL Applied by Licensed Personnel Only?
Heat Treatments- Past, present and Future 10. Documentation Further Emphasized 11. Pheromone Traps Will Get Better, Contour Mapping, Mass Trapping to Disrupt Mating 12. Sanitary Design, Inspection and Sanitation Cannot Be Avoided. 13. Still Need PEOPLE!
Heat Treatments- Past, Present and Future 14. Eco2Fume or Similar 15. Pure Phosphine Delivered From Exterior 16. Spot Treatments versus Whole- Heat or Otherwise 17. Portable Chambers/Units- Heat 18. Heat’s Effectiveness on Museum/Artifact Insects or Sick Building Syndrome