Evolution of magic to religion • Introduction of the salem witch hunts • Severity of the salem witch hunts • How magic contradict religion • Similarities of magic and religion Magic against religion (contents)
Humans started out trying to make sense of natural phenomena • when they failed to, it was all pushed to an external force that was in charge of such natural phenomena. • With time, the collection of such belief and external forces, they grouped it all under the umbrella of religion. Evolution from magic to religion
A small girl fell sick in 1692. • Her convulsions, contortions, and outbursts of gibberish—baffled everyone. Other girls soon manifested the same symptoms. • Their doctor could suggest but one cause - Witchcraft. • That grim diagnosis launched a Puritan inquisition that took 25 lives, filled prisons with innocent people, and frayed the soul of a Massachusetts community called Salem. What were the salem witch hunts?
From June through September of 1692, nineteen men and women, all having been convicted of witchcraft, were carted for hanging. • Another man of over eighty years was pressed to death under heavy stones for refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft charges. • Hundreds of others faced accusations of witchcraft. Dozens languished in jail for months without trials. • Then, almost as soon as it had begun, the hysteria that swept through Puritan Massachusetts ended. Severity of the salemwitchunts
They were rites that contradicted the Christian belief that invoked the wrath of the Church, in an attempt to “eradicate magic, witch craft”. What was really the salem witch hunts?
In the context of Salem, there was an extremist form of Christianity that included things like – no frivolous activity “the girls were dancing in the woods” • This led to the classification of frivolous activity as forms of magic and witchcraft. • Thus resulting in the Salem Witchhunts Christian Belief
With the understanding that when humans do not understand certain matters, they attribute it to an “external force” and a supernatural feature that cannot be explained. • Thus there was not really witchery but just a lack of understanding. Was there really witch craft?
There is always the element of belief and faith in the two spheres • It has not been proven by science – the doctrines of magic and religion • Both are integral to society giving society a form of spirituality and belief The similarities
What do you think of these unjustified charges of witchcraft? Opinions?
Religion and science – the differences • The age of enlightenment • The role of religion in science • The Copernican Revolution • Evolution VS Law of Creationm • Oppression of the sciences Religion and Science (contents)
Science deals with how questions with explanation given and the element of evidence involved • Religion deals with what questions telling us what we should do and resembles a certain form of superior law with the element of belief involved Religion VS Science
The conflict between religion and science is what naturally occurs to our minds when we think of this subject. • It seems as though, during the last half-century, the results of science and the beliefs of religion had come into a position of frank disagreement, from which there can be no escape, except by abandoning either the clear teaching of science or the clear teaching of religion. Religion against Science
When we consider what religion is for mankind, and what science is, it is no exaggeration to say that the future course of history depends upon the decision of this generation as to the relations between them. • We have here the two strongest general forces which influence men, and they seem to be set one against the other Religion against science
We can call the eighteenth century the age of the enlightenment because it was both a culmination and a new beginning. • Fresh currents of thought were wearing down institutionalized traditions. New ideas and new approaches to old institutions were setting the stage for great revolutions to come. The age of enlightenment
1. autonomy of reason 2. perfectibility and progress 3. confidence in the ability to discover causality 4. principles governing nature, man and society 5. assault on authority (Church) 6. cosmopolitan solidarity of enlightened intellectuals (literacy rates) The age of enlightenment - effects
It was an age of reason based on faith, not an age of faith based on reason. • The enlightenment spiritualized the principle of religious authority • Diderot said, if you forbid me to speak on religion and government, I have nothing to say. The Age of Enlightenment - religion
The central theme of the Enlightenment is the effort to humanize religion Age of Enlightenment
Religion basically forms the morals of society • Science cannot exist without morals and the morals exist to restrict and regulate science, acting as a check and balance against science The Role of Religion in Science
Albert Einstein once wrote: "I do not think that it is necessarily the case that science and religion are natural opposites. In fact, I think that there is a very close connection between the two. Further, I think that science without religion is lame and, conversely, that religion without science is blind. Both are important and should work hand-in-hand." The Role of Religion in Science
The lack of explanation – “how” created doubt in the hearts of the people, resulting in the further investigation into the field of science, it was religion that pushed science into going against it and furthering the development in the sciences • If there were not religion and the laws of creation, there would not have been the theory of evolution – science and religion are interdependent. The Role of Religion in Science
The 16th century finally saw what came to be a watershed in the development of Cosmology. In 1543 Nicolas Copernicus published his treatise De RevolutionibusOrbiumCoelestium (The Revolution of Celestial Spheres) where a new view of the world is presented: the heliocentric model. The Copernican Revolution
His theory was that the Earth was surrounded by different planets and revolving around the Sun • This also included the theory of the motion of the planets • This was further proven when the invention of the telescope (Galileo) came about. The Theory
It is hard to underestimate the importance of this work: it challenged the age long views of the way the universe worked and the preponderance of the Earth and, by extension, of human beings. The Copernican Revolution
All the reassurances of the cosmology of the Middle Ages were gone, and a new view of the world, less secure and comfortable, came into being. • Despite these ``problems'' and the many critics the model attracted, the system was soon accepted by the best minds of the time such as Galileo The Copernican Revolution
The modern theory concerning the evolution of man proposes that humans and apes derive from an apelike ancestor a few million years ago. • The theory states that man, through a combination of environmental and genetic factors, emerged as a species, while modern apes evolved on a separate evolutionary pathway. • Perhaps the most famous proponent of evolutionary theory is Charles Darwin (1809-82) who authored The Origin of Species (1859) to describe his theory of evolution. Evolution
The currently-accepted theory of the evolution of man rests on three major principles. • These principles hinge on the innate ability which all creatures have to pass on their genetic information to their offspring through the reproductive process.. Evolution
The first tenet is microevolution, the occurrence and build-up of mutations in the genetic sequence of an organism. Mutations are predominantly random and can occur naturally through errors in the reproductive process or through environmental impacts such as chemicals or radiation. 1st Tenet of Evolution
The second tenet of evolution is natural selection. Natural selection is a natural mechanism by which the fittest members of a species survive to pass on their genetic information, while the weakest are eliminated (die off) because they are unable to compete in the wild. Natural selection is often termed "survival of the fittest" or "elimination of the weakest." 2nd Tenet of Evolution
The third tenet is speciation, which occurs when members of a species mutate to the point where they are no longer able to breed with other members of the same species. The new population becomes a reproductively isolated community that is unable to breed with its former community. Through speciation, the genes of the new population become isolated from the previous group. 3rd Tenet of Evolution
Day 1: The heavens, the earth, light and darkness. • Day 2: Heaven • Day 3: Dry land, the seas, and vegetation. • Day 4: The sun, the moon and the stars. • Day 5: Living creatures in the water, birds in the air. • Day 6: Land animals and people. • Day 7: God "rested". 6 Days of Creation
The most important question asked – Where do we come from - this was the most important clash during the age of enlightenment Evolution
Works of the Age of Enlightenment had not been recognized by the Church until the 1900s and there had been arrests in the name of “God” of scientists • For example, Giordano Bruno, who spent 7 years in the prisons of the Inquisition was burnt alive in 1600 Oppression of Science
What have you understood about the clash betweens the most powerful elements that form society’s minds? • What is your opinion on this clash? Conclusion
Thank you Any Questions?