U.S. PresidentChester A. Arthur 1881-1885
You will fill in the blanks on your handout with the information that isBold and Underlined!!!
A. The Spoils System 1. Remember: In the Election of 1880, the Republicans had nominated a Half-breed for Pres and a Stalwart for VP. 2. Garfield, the Half-breed presidential nominee (and winner!), wanted civil service reform, and Arthur did not!
Significance of Garfield’s death a. Pushed Congress to change the Spoils System b. Arthur changed course and focused on creating a modern civil service system c. Result? Pendleton Act of 1883 i. Provided for open, competitive exams for applicants of govt jobs ii. Banned practice of requiring political contributions from civil servants
d. Effect of the Pendleton Act??? • 1883 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs became civilservice exam positions. • 1900 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal gov’t. jobs. • Much more accountability in gov’t!
B. Summary of Political Aspects Under Garfield and Arthur… 1. Laissez Faire continued 2. Civil Service Reform a. Trying to create an honest and fair government in a time of corruption b. Pendleton Act of 1883
A. The Lure of America • Over 25 million immigrants came to the US between 1866 and 1915. Reasons for coming varied as widely as the people that came. • Some of the reasons were – • Poverty and famine • Land shortages • Religious or political persecution • Dreams of making money and returning home.
B. The Journey to the New Land • The crossing of the oceans in the 1800’s was a difficult and dangerous task. • Most immigrants traveled in what was called steerage or large open areas of the ship’s belly. 3. Diseases often spread among the immigrants. • Deaths were common, especially among the elderly and the children.
C. Old Immigration versus New Immigration • Before 1890 mostEuropean immigrants came from Western and Northern Europe like Germany, Britain, Sweden, or Ireland. This group was labeled the “Old Immigrants”. • After 1890 most European Immigrants came from Southern or Eastern Europe like Austria-Hungary, Italy, Greece, and Russia. This group was labeled the “New Immigrants”
3. New immigrants did not assimilate into U.S. society as easily as the old immigrant groups, and they filled the jobs that many Americans would not take. 4. Resulted inNativist views- growing prejudice from native-born Americans against foreigners
5. Most of the immigrants ended up with low-paying jobs, living in terrible conditions. It was common for them to end up incramped and overcrowded living areas –known as dumbbell tenements
6. Dumbbell Tenements • Most were located close to industries and air pollution contributed to ill health in children. • Jacob Riis would expose the problems of tenement living in the book How the other half lives. • High rates of crime, alcoholism, and suicide occurred in tenements.
D.Push and Pull Factors of Immigration • Pulled bythe promise of the American dream. 2. Pushed byfamine, racial/religious/political discrimination, lack of opportunity in their homeland.
E. Ellis Island 1.Most European immigrants went through EllisIsland* the port of entry in New York Harbor. 2. Doctors would examine and question each family of Immigrants. If an immigrant was found to be ill or unfit or had a contagious disease they would be placed in quarantine and were often returned to their country of origin.
Ellis Island, New York • Ellis Island the main point of entry on the East Coast.
Tactics such as literacy tests and health certifications were used to stem the tide. • Anti-Immigration legislation was common but very little was passed or had an impact.
F. Angel Island 1.While most Europeans were processed through Ellis Island in New York, most Asians entered through Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. 2. Angel Island was much more stringent in its questioning and examinations of Asian immigrants. 3. Asian Immigrants were treated even worse with the Chinese being discriminated against the worst.
G. Assimilation and conflict 1.Immigrants from all regions of the world experienced “Cultural Shock” or a confusion at a culture they did not understand. 2. Immigrants tended to settle in areas of the cities that shared their language or cultures, known as ethnic neighborhoods. Little Italy,Germantown, and Chinatown all became famous ethnic neighborhoods.
Urban Growth: 1870 - 1900 • Which city had the biggest jump? • Who do you think most of its newcomers were? • How did the people of that area feel about the newcomers?
H. The Nativist Response Immigration restrictions 1. Many immigrant groups refused to blend into what the native Americans referred to as the “melting pot” or mixture of people and races. 2. Many immigrants refused to abandon their old culture and this created resentment among “Natives” as American born residents called themselves.
The rise of Nativism 3. Favoritism toward native-born Americans and anti-immigration sentiment began to build in large cities. 4. The Irish and Chinese were discriminated against the worst. 5. There were also fears based on religious prejudice. Catholics, Jewish, or other non-Protestant religions were attacked and regularly discriminated against.
I. How The Other Half Lived 1. Exploding populations increased the strain on city governments for housing, transportation, water, and sanitation. 2. Housing- Few people could afford the luxury of commuting from the suburbs (outskirts of the big city) to work inside the city; housing inside the cities did exist but too few to handle the large numbers and the conditions were HORRENDOUS!!
H. Chinese Exclusion Act 1. The Chinese became the first group in the west to face anti-immigration policies. 2. Labor leaders pressed the government to restrict Chinese immigration b/c they believed US jobs were being stolen by them. 3.The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 *– Excluded the immigration to the USat first for only 10 years but then indefinitely. This act remained in effect until 1943.
K. Booker T Washington (1856 - 1915) 1. A former slave, Washington would rise to prominence in America during the late 1800’s. 2. Headed the Tuskegee Institute, a technical college for African Americans, which opened in 1881 in AL. 3. Advocated economic independence through self-help, hard work, and a practical education
Imagine this in the heart of the South… during the Gilded Age… and Jim Crow… Can you see the accomplishment Tuskegee was????
A. Manufacturing and Inventions 1.Technological advances altered the lives of ordinary people far more than political activities 2. U.S. patent (the exclusive right granted by a government to an inventor to manufacture, use, or sell an invention for a certain number of years) office recorded only 276 inventions in the 1790’s versus 235,000 in the 1890’s.
Growth of U.S. Patents 1790s 276 patents issued 1990s 1,119,220 patents issued
Electricity and Communications Innovators: Bell and Edison a. 1876-telephone patented by Alexander Graham Bell (what was used before?) b.1877 –Bell Telephone organized(1885: renamed American Telephone and Telegraph Company, or AT&T)and first private phone line established! Why??
Alexander Graham Bell Telephone (1876)
Thomas A. Edison c. Thomas A. Edison-“The Wizard of Menlo Park” successfully perfected an incandescent light bulb in 1879, the Phonograph in 1877, the electrical generation system in 1882. He would later begin a power plant. Why??
Thomas Alva Edison “Wizard of Menlo Park”
d. 1882 – backed by J.P. Morgan, the Edison Electric Illuminating Company began supplying customers.
Industrial Innovations 4.The Steel Revolution a. Iron items were too rigid and heavy to be used in all modes of construction, but steel was light and strong enough for almost anything. b. Henry Bessemer developed a process for the production of steel which allowed it to be mass produced. c. Bessemer became associated with this process first so it was called the Bessemer Process
Steel uses spread • The production of steel in the US skyrocketed due to high demand, especially as the Railroad and construction industries increased. This allowed for skyscrapers, suspension bridges (Brooklyn Bridge), etc. which changed cities forever!!
5. Oil • Edwin L. Drake, using a steam engine, drilled the first successful oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania in 1859. • Kerosene was the main product of the first oil wells. • Wells began to appear across the country centered in areas like Texas and Ohio which paved the way for greater technological advancements
B. Innovators in Organization:Rockefeller and Carnegie • John D. Rockefeller (NY) invested in the oil industry • 1870 – John D. Rockefeller incorporated his various interests into the Standard Oil Company • In 1882, all its properties were merged in the Standard Oil Trust
John .D. Rockefeller *January 2, 1882 :The Trust was valued quite conservatively at $70,000,000 – the true value was about $200,000,000.
c. Rockefeller was known to use the following tactics to ensure Standard Oil was #1: • Monopolization — Bought up all of the components needed for the manufacture of oil barrels in order to prohibit his competitors from getting their product on the market • Rate Wars — cutting the price of oil, forcing his competitors to go out of business or sell out to him! (cutthroat competition)