Understanding Complex Text CITING EVIDENCE ELA COMPLEXITY UNDERSTANDING COMPLEX TEXT ARI CLOSE READING LIT MEGA 2013 ALABAMA COLLEGE AND CAREER READY STANDARDS
Anchor Standards Science & Technical Subjects History/ Social Studies ELA
How do we measure text complexity? Quantitative dimensions of text complexity. The terms quantitative dimensions and quantitative factors refer to those aspects of text complexity, such as word length or frequency, sentence length, and text cohesion, that are difficult if not impossible for a human reader to evaluate efficiently, especially in long texts, and are thus today typically measured by computer software. Qualitative dimensions of text complexity. In the Standards, qualitative dimensions and qualitative factors refer to those aspects of text complexity best measured or only measurable by an attentive human reader, such as levels of meaning or purpose; structure; language conventionality and clarity; and knowledge demands. Qualitative Quantitative Reader and Text Reader and task considerations. While the prior two elements of the model focus on the inherent complexity of text, variables specific to particular readers (such as motivation, knowledge, and experiences) and to particular tasks (such as purpose and the complexity of the task assigned and the questions posed) must also be considered when determining whether a text is appropriate for a given student. Such assessments are best made by teachers employing their professional judgment, experience, and knowledge of their students and the subject.
Quantitative Measures Finding a Lexile Measure for Text: http://www.lexile.com/findabook/
Closely Read the Text First read: look for key ideas and details Second read: look for qualitative measures of text (linguistic, semantic, structural, and cultural) Third read: look for applications and connections you will want students to make
Reader and Task Guiding Principles • Considerations such as: • Motivation • Knowledge and experience • Purpose for reading • Complexity of task assigned regarding text • Complexity of questions asked regarding text
Make close reading and rereading of texts central to lessons. Based on your close reading of text, why is this important?
Provide scaffolding that does not preempt or replace text. What does this statement mean?
How Should Instruction Address Text Complexity? RA! RA! RA! Reading! Read Along Some scaffolding, as needed, for decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension Read Aloud Modeling of decoding and fluency Heavy scaffolding for vocabulary and comprehension Read Alone Independent, autonomous reading Little to no scaffolding Student Autonomy Teacher Scaffolding Gradual Release of Responsibility (I do, we do, you do)…
Now… How would you scaffold this text for your students?
Ask text dependent questions from a range of question types. Moves from literal to interpretive Requires students to return to the text to formulate responses
Progression of Text-dependent Questions Whole Acrosstexts Entire text Segments Paragraph Sentence Word Part
What makes Casey’s experiences at bat humorous? What can you infer from King’sletter about the letter that he received? “The Gettysburg Address” mentions the year 1776. According to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? Text-Dependent Questions? In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. Describe a time when you failed at something. In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss, in writing, a time when you wanted to fight against something that you felt was unfair. In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote?
Sample Literary Questions Pre CCRS Question CCRS Question From The Adventures of Tom SawyerWhy does Tom hesitate to allow Ben to paint the fence? How does Twain construct his sentences to reflect that hesitation? What effect do Tom’s hesitations have on Ben? From The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Have the students identify the different methods of removing warts that Tom and Huckleberry talk about. Discuss the charms that they say and the items (i.e. dead cats) they use. Ask students to devise their own charm to remove warts.
Which of the following questions require students to read the text closely and cite evidence from the text? • If you were present at the signing of the Declaration of Independence, what would you do? • What are the reasons listed in the preamble for supporting their argument to separate from Great Britain?
If you were present at the signing of the Declaration of Independence, what would you do? • What are the reasons listed in the preamble for supporting their argument to separate from Great Britain?
Writing text dependent questions YOUR TURN • Using your text, work with a partner to write 1-2 text dependent questions • Work with another set of partners to assess your questions using the Checklist for Evaluating Question Quality • Choose one question and write on a sentence strip for display
Provide extensive research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence).
Close writing requires close reading. UNDERSTANDING WRITING ALABAMA COLLEGE AND CAREER READY STANDARDS
“…writing is treated as an equal partner to reading, and more than this, writing is assumed to be the vehicle through which a great deal of the reading work and assessments will occur.” Pathways to the Common Core, pg. 102
Closely Read the Anchor Standards First read: look for key ideas and details Second read: look for evidence of how the reading and writing standards support one another Third read: look for applications and connections you will want students to make
What’s new with CCRS? PREVIOUSLY NOW Now students must write routinely What are some examples? What are some of the opportunities? What are some of the rewards? Students wrote periodically • What are some examples? • What were some of the challenges? • What were some of the consequences? So what is another change you see in the writing standards?
What is the instructional shift in writing? • Increased emphasis on • Analysis of individual texts • Argument and evidence • Informative/explanatory writing • Frequent short, focused research projects • Comparison and synthesis of multiple sources • Decreased emphasis on • Narrative, especially personal narrative • Writing in response to decontextualized prompts
Argument Informational/Explanatory Narrative
Close Reading to Write • Closely read the text • Use RISC strategy to write about the text Essential Question: What makes the American Dream so important?
Close Reading Argumentation and Discussion Extended Writing
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