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Understanding Text Organization

Understanding Text Organization

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Understanding Text Organization

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  1. Understanding Text Organization Jamestown Unit 3

  2. Methods of Organization When a writer includes details to support an idea, how does the writer organize those details? • In no particular order • In a pattern that suits the topic and purpose • In whatever way the writer’s mind wanders

  3. Methods of Organization • A writer organizes supporting details according to a pattern that is appropriate to a topic. • The pattern will help the writer accomplish their purpose for writing.

  4. 1. Simple Listing • Least structured pattern • Writers mention one fact or detail after another with no significant order. • All details are equally important

  5. 2. Order of Importance • Used when writers want to place more emphasis on some supporting details than others. • The most important detail is usually presented first unless the writer is building to the most important detail. • Often writers signal the importance of details with the phrases most importantly, foremost, and of greatest importance. • When summarizing a paragraph that uses this method, you should use only the important details.

  6. 3. Chronological Order • This is also known as time order. • This pattern is often used by historians, fiction writers, and journalists. • Events are usually written in the same order in which they occur. • This pattern is usually easy to identify. • A summary of a passage that uses this pattern should include the most significant events in the sequence they occurred.

  7. 4. Spatial Development • This is the order most frequently used in description. • The writer uses this pattern to present details from a particular vantage point. • The purpose is to arrange the description so that the reader may follow it easily. • When summarizing a passage that uses this pattern, you should achieve an overallview and include only the significant details.

  8. 5. Cause and Effect • Used when one thing under discussion is a result of another or when one event causes another to happen. • A cause is an event that makes another occur. • An effect is the result. • To summarize a passage that uses this pattern, include both the cause and effect, but other details can be omitted.

  9. 6. Comparison and Contrast • Writers use this to show similarities and differences. • A comparison shows how things are similar and a contrast shows how things are different. • Facts or details being compared or contrasted are often shown together with words such as either…or, some, others, not only…but also, or both…and.

  10. 7. Combinations • This is when a writer uses several methods to develop ideas. • One paragraph may even have two or three organizational patterns working together.

  11. Practice Identify which method is used for each of the following paragraphs. Underline or highlight words or phrases that help determine which method is used.

  12. A. Astronauts travel on a spaceship for their job. They live onboard. They eat and sleep on the spaceship. They use a toothbrush to brush their teeth, just like they would on land. They sleep with a seatbelt on. This is different from how they would sleep on earth. When astronauts are back on land, they live like the rest of us. They go to classrooms, drink milkshakes, play football, and travel in cars. For myself, I think it would be very fun to live on a spaceship.

  13. A. Compare and Contrast Astronauts travel on a spaceship for their job. They live onboard. They eat and sleep on the spaceship. They use a toothbrush to brush their teeth, just like they would on land. They sleep with a seatbelt on. This is different from how they would sleep on earth. When astronauts are back on land, they live like the rest of us. They go to classrooms, drink milkshakes, play football, and travel in cars. For myself, I think it would be very fun to live on a spaceship.

  14. A. Compare and Contrast Astronauts travel on a spaceship for their job. They live onboard. They eat and sleep on the spaceship. They use a toothbrush to brush their teeth, just like they would on land. They sleep with a seatbelt on. This is different from how they would sleep on earth. When astronauts are back on land, they live like the rest of us. They go to classrooms, drink milkshakes, play football, and travel in cars. For myself, I think it would be very fun to live on a spaceship.

  15. B. The sun is a powerful force. It enables plants to grow which empowers people to grow plants for food. It also enables people to live on the earth. If there were no sun, the earth would be too cold and too dark. We need the sun to live. Many people enjoy the sun. It is nice to be outside on a sunny day, but the sun’s rays are strong. We must be safe in the sun. Scientists encourage us to wear sunscreen.

  16. B. Cause and Effect The sun is a powerful force. It enables plants to grow which empowers people to grow plants for food. It also enables people to live on the earth. If there were no sun, the earth would be too cold and too dark. We need the sun to live. Many people enjoy the sun. It is nice to be outside on a sunny day, but the sun’s rays are strong. We must be safe in the sun. Scientists encourage us to wear sunscreen.

  17. B. Cause and Effect The sun is a powerful force. It enables plants to grow which empowers people to grow plants for food. It also enables people to live on the earth. If there were no sun, then the earth would be too cold and too dark. We need the sun to live. Many people enjoy the sun. It is nice to be outside on a sunny day, but the sun’s rays are strong. Therefore, we must be safe in the sun. Scientists encourage us to wear sunscreen.

  18. C. It was Mia’s birthday and she was feeling unhappy. No one had wished her a happy birthday. She went home, and the kitchen was in disorder. She couldn’t believe it. But then, she saw a present. It was from her baby brother. He had wrapped the present himself and wanted Mia to open it. So, Mia untied the ribbon. When she tried to unwrap it, the paper was stuck. Then, she ripped it and it came unstuck. She saw the gift and smiled. Her little brother gave her just what she wanted. She gave him a big hug and was not unhappy anymore.

  19. C. Sequence of Events It was Mia’s birthday and she was feeling unhappy. No one had wished her a happy birthday. She went home, and the kitchen was in disorder. She couldn’t believe it. But then, she saw a present. It was from her baby brother. He had wrapped the present himself and wanted Mia to open it. So, Mia untied the ribbon. When she tried to unwrap it, the paper was stuck. Then, she ripped it and it came unstuck. She saw the gift and smiled. Her little brother gave her just what she wanted. She gave him a big hug and was not unhappy anymore.

  20. C. Sequence of Events It was Mia’s birthday and she was feeling unhappy. No one had wished her a happy birthday. She went home, and the kitchen was in disorder. She couldn’t believe it. But then, she saw a present. It was from her baby brother. He had wrapped the present himself and wanted Mia to open it. So, Mia untied the ribbon. When she tried to unwrap it, the paper was stuck. Then, she ripped it and it came unstuck. She saw the gift and smiled. Her little brother gave her just what she wanted. She gave him a big hug and was not unhappy anymore.

  21. D. His eyes were dark and penetrating. His hands were gripped tightly around the baseball bat. Sweat dripped noiselessly from him forehead. The pitcher was his most hated opponent and he was determined to get a hit off of him at last. As the pitcher wound up for the pitch, the boy’s gaze continued to focus on the ball.

  22. D. Spatial Development His eyes were dark and penetrating. His hands were gripped tightly around the baseball bat. Sweat dripped noiselessly from him forehead. The pitcher was his most hated opponent and he was determined to get a hit off of him at last. As the pitcher wound up for the pitch, the boy’s gaze continued to focus on the ball.

  23. D. Spatial Development His eyes were dark and penetrating. His hands were gripped tightly around the baseball bat. Sweat dripped noiselessly from him forehead. The pitcher was his most hated opponent and he was determined to get a hit off of him at last. As the pitcher wound up for the pitch, the boy’s gaze continued to focus on the ball.

  24. E. In 1608, Captain John Smith wrote a description of his capture of Powhatan. He made it clear that the Indian chief had treated him with unusual courtesy and friendliness. In 1624, Smith repeated the story in his General History of Virginia, but his life had changed. He described himself as having “a prince’s mind imprisoned in a poor man’s purse.” He wanted his book to be profitable, so he decided to write a new version of his now-famous encounter with Chief Powhatan and his daughter, Pocahontas. In the new version, the once-friendly Powhatan would have had Smith’s head cut off if Pocahontas had not saved his life at the last moment.

  25. E. Combination In 1608, Captain John Smith wrote a description of his capture of Powhatan. He made it clear that the Indian chief had treated him with unusual courtesy and friendliness. In 1624, Smith repeated the story in his General History of Virginia, but his life had changed. He described himself as having “a prince’s mind imprisoned in a poor man’s purse.” He wanted his book to be profitable, so he decided to write a new version of his now-famous encounter with Chief Powhatan and his daughter, Pocahontas. In the new version, the once-friendly Powhatan would have had Smith’s head cut off if Pocahontas had not saved his life at the last moment.

  26. E. Combination In 1608, Captain John Smith wrote a description of his capture of Powhatan. He made it clear that the Indian chief had treated him with unusual courtesy and friendliness. In1624, Smith repeated the story in his General History of Virginia, but his life had changed. He described himself as having “a prince’s mind imprisoned in a poor man’s purse.” He wanted his book to be profitable, so he decided to write a new version of his now-famous encounter with Chief Powhatan and his daughter, Pocahontas. In the new version, the once-friendly Powhatan would have had Smith’s head cut off if Pocahontas had not saved his life at the last moment. Chronological Order, Cause and Effect

  27. F. If you go hiking, it is nice to have a walking stick. A walking stick is kind of like a cane. It may have a knob on the end. It may have some grooves where you can rest your fingers and thumb. You will want to make sure that it is the right size for you. It will be hard to hold if it is too tall. If it is too short, you will have to bend over. A walking stick can help you get around tricky spots on a trail. You can use it to poke the ground to see if it is muddy. You can use it to walk up steep steps. It can help you move easier. Some people make fancy walking sticks. They carve the wood. Other people just find a big tree branch. It does not really matter what it looks like. A walking stick is helpful.

  28. F. Simple Listing If you go hiking, it is nice to have a walking stick. A walking stick is kind of like a cane. It may have a knob on the end. It may have some grooves where you can rest your fingers and thumb. You will want to make sure that it is the right size for you. It will be hard to hold if it is too tall. If it is too short, you will have to bend over. A walking stick can help you get around tricky spots on a trail. You can use it to poke the ground to see if it is muddy. You can use it to walk up steep steps. It can help you move easier. Some people make fancy walking sticks. They carve the wood. Other people just find a big tree branch. It does not really matter what it looks like. A walking stick is helpful.

  29. F. Simple Listing If you go hiking, it is nice to have a walking stick. A walking stick is kind of like a cane. It may have a knob on the end. It may have some grooves where you can rest your fingers and thumb.You will want to make sure that it is the right size for you. It will be hard to hold if it is too tall. If it is too short, you will have to bend over. A walking stick can help you get around tricky spots on a trail. You can use it to poke the ground to see if it is muddy. You can use it to walk up steep steps. It can help you move easier. Some people make fancy walking sticks. They carve the wood. Other people just find a big tree branch. It does not really matter what it looks like. A walking stick is helpful. All details are all equally important.

  30. G. Generally, there are three main reasons why people get contacts. You may need them because the cornea of your eye is misshapen and ordinary glasses are not satisfactory. If so, you’ll be in the group that constitutes the one to two percent of people who wear contact lenses. But you may want them for a sport, avocation, or vocation. Perhaps you’re a baseball player, a boxer, a swimmer, or an actor, and you’re engaged in an industry in which flying particles may injure your eyes. If you get your contact lenses for one of these reasons, you are in the same group as about twenty percent of the users. But if for some reason you feel that glasses are handicapping your appearance and you’d rather have invisible glasses, you’ll have lots of company. About seventy nine percent of lens users hope to improve their looks.

  31. G. Order of Importance Generally, there are three main reasons why people get contacts. You may need them because the cornea of your eye is misshapen and ordinary glasses are not satisfactory. If so, you’ll be in the group that constitutes the one to two percent of people who wear contact lenses. But you may want them for a sport, avocation, or vocation. Perhaps you’re a baseball player, a boxer, a swimmer, or an actor, and you’re engaged in an industry in which flying particles may injure your eyes. If you get your contact lenses for one of these reasons, you are in the same group as about twenty percent of the users. But if for some reason you feel that glasses are handicapping your appearance and you’d rather have invisible glasses, you’ll have lots of company. About seventy nine percent of lens users hope to improve their looks.

  32. G. Order of Importance Generally, there are three main reasons why people get contacts. You may need them because the cornea of your eye is misshapen and ordinary glasses are not satisfactory. If so, you’ll be in the group that constitutes the one to two percent of people who wear contact lenses. But you may want them for a sport, avocation, or vocation. Perhaps you’re a baseball player, a boxer, a swimmer, or an actor, and you’re engaged in an industry in which flying particles may injure your eyes. If you get your contact lenses for one of these reasons, you are in the same group as about twenty percent of the users. But if for some reason you feel that glasses are handicapping your appearance and you’d rather have invisible glasses, you’ll have lots of company. About seventy nine percent of lens users hope to improve their looks.