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Asthma PowerPoint Presentation

Asthma

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Asthma

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  1. Meredith G. Hennon, MPH and the Supercourse team in Pittsburgh Asthma

  2. Background • Asthma is a chronic lung-disease that inflames and narrows the airways (tubes that bring air into and out of an individual’s lungs). • Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children.

  3. Symptoms • Common symptoms of asthma include: • Coughing • Wheezing • Tightness in the chest • Shortness of breath

  4. Causes • While the exact cause of asthma is not known, it is thought that a variety of factors interacting with one another, early in life, result in the development of asthma.

  5. Causes • Parents with asthma • Atopy • Childhood respiratory infections • Exposure to allergens or infections while the immune system is developing

  6. Diagnosis • Based on: • Medical history • Physical examination • Test results

  7. Asthma Triggers • A variety of things can cause asthma symptoms to appear: • Allergens • Irritants • Food and drinks • Medicines • Physical activity • Upper respiratory infections (viral)

  8. Asthma prevalence • In the United States: • More females than males have asthma. • Blacks and American Indian/Alaska natives have higher percentages of asthma than Whites, Hispanics, and Asians.

  9. Asthma prevalence, 2005

  10. Lifetime asthma diagnosis, 2005

  11. Asthma disparities • Death from asthma is 3 times more likely to occur among Blacks than Whites. • Among adults, women of all races have higher rates of illness and death from asthma than men. • Rates of hospitalization for asthma for Blacks are almost triple those for Whites.

  12. Number of asthma deaths per 100,000 population, 2003

  13. Increasing rates • Asthma rates have been increasing in the United States for both adults and children, males and females, and in the different races and ethnicities. • It is estimated that the number of people with asthma worldwide will increase by 25% in the next 15 years.

  14. Child and Adult Asthma PrevalenceUnited States, 1980-2007 • Child • Adult Lifetime Current 12-Month Source: National Health Interview Survey; CDC National Center for Health Statistics

  15. Asthma Prevalence by SexUnited States, 1980-2007 • Female • Male Lifetime 12-Month Current Source: National Health Interview Survey; CDC National Center for Health Statistics

  16. Asthma Prevalence by Race/EthnicityUnited States, 1997-2007 • Black NH • White NH • Hispanic Lifetime Current Source: National Health Interview Survey; National Center for Health Statistics

  17. Worldwide Burden of Asthma • 300 million people suffer from asthma worldwide. • 255,000 asthma deaths in 2005. • ~3,500 in the United States. • Over 80% of asthma deaths occur in low and lower-middle income countries.

  18. Treatment • While asthma cannot be cured, it can be controlled: • Medications • Long term • Quick relief • Bronchial thermoplasty • Learning to recognize one’s own triggers and taking steps to avoid them.

  19. Treatment • Medication • Long term • Inhaled corticosteroid • Leukotriene modifiers • Long-acting beta agonists • Combination inhalers

  20. Treatment • Quick relief (rescue) medications • Short-acting beta agonists • Ipratropium • Oral and intravenous corticosteroids • Bronchial thermoplasty • Recognizing, tracking, and avoiding triggers

  21. Review Questions (Developed by the Supercourse team) • What are some of the common asthma triggers? • Which age, sex, and/or racial groups see disparities in asthma prevalence rates, as well as hospitalizations and deaths? • Describe the process of asthma diagnosis.