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Ethics of Medical Research

Ethics of Medical Research

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Ethics of Medical Research

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  1. Ethics of Medical Research Professor Ahmed A. Adeel

  2. Objectives • Identify the main principles of medical research ethics. • Discuss the balance of research and clinical care. • Describe requirements of ethics review committees, including definition of informed consent. • Identify the key international and national references for the rules and regulations of medical research

  3. Main Functions of Medical Research • Monitoring and evaluation of drugs / treatments being used • The development of new treatments, especially drugs, medical devices and surgical interventions. • Understanding human physiology . • Causes of diseases and the best ways to prevent or cure them. • Factors in human health, including patterns of disease (epidemiology), • The organization, funding and delivery of healthcare (health systems research), • Social and cultural aspects of health (medical sociology and anthropology),

  4. Why do practicing physicians need a good understanding of medical research methods ? All physicians make use of the results of medical research in their clinical practice. To maintain their competence, physicians must keep up with the current research , they must know how to interpret the results of research and apply them to their patients.

  5. Two potential problems for practicing physicians : • The physician’s primary responsibility is the health and well-being of the patient, whereas the researcher’s primary responsibility is the generation of knowledge, which may or may not contribute to the research subject’s health and wellbeing . • Conflict of interest when the physician is influenced by financial gains from research or results of the research.

  6. HISTORY : Development of codes of ethics for medical research , the Nuremberg Code In During World War II , physicians in Nazi Germany and elsewhere performed research on subjects that clearly violated fundamental human rights. • The Nazis immersed their subjects into vats of ice water at sub-zero temperatures, or left them out to freeze in the winter cold. As the prisoners excreted mucus, fainted and slipped into unconsciousness, the Nazis meticulously recorded the changes in their body temperature, heart rate ,muscle response, and urine.

  7. HISTORY : Development of codes of ethics for medical research , the Nuremberg Code Following World War Two, some of these physicians were tried and convicted by a special tribunal at Nuremberg, Germany. The basis of the judgment is known as the Nuremberg Code, which has served as one of the foundational documents of modern research ethics. 23 German doctors were charged with crimes against humanity for experiments the defendants committed the murders, brutalities, cruelties, tortures, atrocities, and other inhuman

  8. HISTORY : The Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-72) “ the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male ” This clinical study that has become a symbol of unethical medical experimentation.

  9. HISTORY : The Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-72) • Started in 1932 and involved nearly 400 poor and uneducated African-American men diagnosed with latent syphilis - meaning that they had the infection but showed no obvious symptoms at that stage.

  10. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-72) • For 40 years they were never told they had syphilis and were never treated for it, even when penicillin became a standard cure in 1947. They were simply told they had ‘bad blood’. • Among the aims of the study was to see whether syphilis affected black men differently from white men.

  11. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-72) • For participating in the study, the men received free rides to and from the clinic at Tuskegee University, Alabama. • There they were given hot meals and free medical treatment for minor ailments. Any treatments they thought they were also getting for their ‘bad blood’ were actually placebos, aspirin or mineral supplements. • Medical staff allowed nothing to interfere with their work. • Even when 250 of the men were drafted for service in the Second World War, they remained part of the study.

  12. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-72) • When the study ended in 1972 following a public outcry, only 74 of the original participants were still alive.

  13. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-72)

  14. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study • Only 74 men were still alive. • All rest had died of the disease or of related complications. • 40 wives had been infected • 19 children had been born with congenital syphilis. • Survivors eventually received financial compensation

  15. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study • 1997 US President Bill Clinton was moved to declare that ‘on behalf of the American people, what the United States government did was shameful’

  16. The Belmont Report 1979Principles of research with human subjects Principles of Research with Human Subjects: • Respect for Persons • Beneficence • Justice معاملة الإنسان كشخصية مستقلة له رأيه الحر دون إكراه الإحسان و منع الإساءة كما يجب أن لآ يصيب الضرر الإنسان نتيجةللبحث العدل في العبء و الفائدة المرجوة من البحث http://ohrp.osophs.dhhs.gov/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.htm

  17. The Belmont Report 1979Principles of research with human subjects Principles of Research with Human Subjects (1) Respect for Persons معاملة الإنسان كشخصية مستقلة له رأيه الحر دون إكراه – individuals have autonomy and choice – people can not be used as a means to an end – provide protection to the vulnerable – provide informed consent and privacy (2) Beneficence (3) Justice

  18. The Belmont Report 1979Principles of research with human subjects Principles of Research with Human Subjects • Respect for Persons – individuals have autonomy and choice – people can not be used as a means to an end – provide protection to the vulnerable – provide informed consent and privacy • Beneficence • Justice

  19. The Belmont Report 1979Principles of research with human subjects Principles of Research with Human Subjects (1)Respect for Persons (2) Beneficence الإحسان و منع الإساءة كما يجب أن لآ يصيب الضرر الإنسان نتيجةللبحث –kindness beyond duty – obligation to do no harm – obligation to prevent harm – obligation to do good – minimize risks, maximize benefits (3) Justice

  20. The Belmont Report 1979Principles of research with human subjects Principles of Research with Human Subjects (1) Respect for Persons (2) Beneficence (3) Justice العدل في العبء و الفائدة المرجوة من البحث – treat all fairly – share equitably burdens and benefits

  21. Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) • Issued by World Medical Association (WMA) in 1964. • It was further revised in 1975, 1983, 1989, 1996, 2000 and 2008. • The DoH is a concise summary of research ethics. Other, much more detailed, documents have been produced in recent years on research ethics in general

  22. Declaration of Helsinki (DoH)Important points (1) Ethics Review Committee Approval Medical research on human subjects must be reviewed and approved by an independent ethics committee before it can proceed. (2) Scientific Merit Medical research involving human subjects must be justifiable on scientific grounds . ( 3) Qualified Researchers : Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted by qualified researchers. (4) Social Value Medical research project should that it contribute to the wellbeing of society in general. (5) Risks and Benefits It is also necessary for the researcher to demonstrate that the risks to the research subjects are not unreasonable or disproportionate to the expected benefits of the research,which may not even go to the research subjects. (6) Informed Consent The first principle of the Nuremberg Code reads as follows: “The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.”

  23. Declaration of Helsinki (DoH)Important points (7) Confidentiality Research subjects have a right to privacy with regard to their personal health information. (8) Conflict of Roles The physician’s role in the physician-patient relationship is over the researcher’s role ,even if the physician and the researcher are the same person. (9) Honest Reporting of Results Research results be reported accurately, but unfortunately there have been numerous recentaccounts of dishonest practices in the publication of research results. (10) Whistle-blowing In order to prevent unethical research from occurring, or to expose it after the fact, anyone who has knowledge of such behaviour has an obligation to disclose this information to the appropriate authorities.

  24. Declaration of Helsinki (DoH)Important points (11) Justice Equitable selection of participants, i.e., avoiding participant populations that may be unfairly coerced into participating, such as prisoners and institutionalized children. The principle of justice also requires equality in distribution of benefits and burdens among the population group(s) likely to benefit from the research.

  25. Summary of main ethical research requirements • Voluntary consent • For good of society • Animal experiments 1st; human experiments 2nd • Avoid unnecessary suffering • Do not conduct if death & debility likely • Risk commensurate with benefits • Protect subjects against harm • Conducted only by qualified persons • Subjects should be at liberty to discontinue • Terminate if becomes apparent that death or debility will occur

  26. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA The National Committee of Medical & Bioethics was approved by the Royal Decree on 18/5/1422H, to be headquartered at KACST in Riyadh. It consists of the following sub-committees: The legal sub-committee. The human research sub-committee. The flora & animal sub-committee. The education & media sub-committee.

  27. نظام أخلاقبات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  28. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحيةCode of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  29. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  30. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  31. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  32. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  33. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  34. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  35. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  36. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  37. Informed Consent الموافقة بعد التبصير

  38. Informed Consent الموافقة بعد التبصير

  39. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  40. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  41. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  42. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  43. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  44. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  45. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  46. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  47. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  48. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  49. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA

  50. نظام أخلاقيات البحث على المخلوقات الحية Code of Ethics for Research on Living Creatures, KSA